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I want to illustrate the method of using decomposition by function to help you in

exploration. I want to do it by using the ice cream

scoop example and you may recall from the problem definition video that we came up

with the problem statement. In what way might we create a better

handheld tool for forming balls of ice cream from a bulk container?

Now, decomposition by function is facilitated by the creation of what I call

a function diagram. And a function diagram is basically a flow

chart that describes what it is that the artifact has to do and can be thought of

as functions involving the flow of materials, energy, and signal.

And so, let me just illustrate with the ice cream scoop.

I think the, the flow of material is the most straightforward.

So, let's imagine we have, the bulk container, which has the ice cream.

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All right, so, let me first emphasize that function diagrams are not unique.

That is, there are many possible ways of decomposing what it is an artifact does by

function. This is a reasonable way to do it, I think

it's very useful to think for most artifacts to think about the flow of

material, the flow of energy or force, and the flow of signal.

And that lets you think about, what are the elements, the fundamental elements of

function that, that device performs? Now, this is a very simple artifact, an

ice cream scoop, but even for a very simple artifact, it is possible to

decompose or break down what it is that artifact does into smaller pieces.

The next step in using a function diagram, so this thing we call a function diagram.

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And the, the next step in use, actually using the function diagram for exploration

is to pick typically at most two or three of these functions to use as a way to

focus your exploration effort. And as I look at this, I think that the.

really the obvious ones are clearly the way in which the scoop divides from bulk

is gonna be critical. It's gonna be critical to think about the

application of human power. And maybe there's some interesting things

that could be done as a result of focusing on the forming of the bowl.

But, I think for, for now, I'm gonna focus on these two The application of human

power, and the dividing of a portion of ice cream from bulk.

Alright, so let me show you how that works.

So, We're going to divide our design problem

into just two pieces and the pieces are going to be divide from bulk and apply

human power. And remember the key idea in decomposition

is we're going to focus single-mindedly on that subproblem and not necessarily in the

context of the, of the overall design problem we're trying to solve.

So, for instance, let me just give some examples for how we might do the out, how

we might consider, the, how we might use that decomposition by focusing on applying

human power. So some ways that you might apply human

power. You might imagine twisting, you might

imagine, squeezing. You might imagine hammering or impacting.

So let's just draw a little hammer here. You might imagine, I don't know pushing.

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Stepping on something? We might imagine.

And I guess it's a version of squeezing but I'm thinking about like the shears

that are used in cutting branches that look like something like that.

And that's kind of a, a squeeze as well. Alright now see what we just did there we

generated a bunch of ideas. For how it is that human power can be

applied. None of these in the context of ice cream

scoops, but just generally how is it that human power is applied.

And, and, you know, to illustrate that it, see it, it can be, it really should be

outside of the context of ice cream scoops you can even imagine you know, pedaling,

right, might be an application of, of human power.

So those are all the ways you might apply human power.

Many of the ways you might apply human power.

Okay, so now lets do the same thing over dividing from bulk.

What are ways that things are divided from bulk?

I don't know, you might imagine a bulk sheet of material.

And imagine that it's perforated and you, so, I'm going to call that pre-divided.

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Okay. So.

So, that, that, so basically, we d-, we divided, we decomposed by function.

We've picked two function, and then we generate two functions and then we

generated some solutions to subproblems that are independent of the particular

ice-cream scoop problem. Alright.

Now's the fun part which is, we pick one from column A, one from column B, and we

see if we can create an ice-cream scoop that integrates those two principles.

So, let me take let's take. This guy, punch and twist.

See what we could do. So we're gonna do a, a punch, a punch and

twist. So imagine you had a scoop.

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It's got a, it's a cylindrical section that is like a cookie cutter or like a,

That can punch out and so the way you'd use this is you'd press, you'd press this

cylindrical cutter down into the ice cream.

And then you put your thumb right there and you'd use it to twist the cutter to

form a cylindrical plug of ice cream. Alright, so everyone see what we just did

there? We took the idea of pushing to cut, punch

to cut, and twisting to cut. Integrated into the solution, that's the

idea of a, cut into a cylindrical plug and then twisting it to, to cut.

Alright? how about, one of the things that's kind of frustrating about ice cream

is getting leverage on the ice cream itself.

So I like the idea of, if we go back here, I'm intrigued by this idea of squeezing

and I wonder if there's a, like a squeeze and a scoop that we could do.

We should have just a scoop here, right? A squeeze in a scoop that has, so could,

could there be an ice cream scoop that has, let me think how this would work.

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It's a pincer scooper. So, this leverages the idea of using

opposing force of squeezing pincers instead of requiring the wrist of the user

to, to, to resist the action of the, of the scooping.

I'm also intrigued by, here's another one that I'm intrigued by,

I wonder if there's more of a pulling action that we could use so you could

imagine the users, the user grabbing this thing and pulling and if we could some how

get the cutter, the pulling feature part of this thing.

So this is going to be pull to fuh, to form a curl of ice cream.

Then that also would have this nice quality of all the forces lining up so

that it doesn't, hurt the wrist. All right.

And let's see if there's another one here. I wonder if there's a way to kind of do

the excavator thing. I'm thinking.

So, a push approach. And let's imagine we have a ball-shaped

cutter and I wonder if there's a way to create a little mechanism such that the,

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This piece here to rotate under, kinda like an excavator when you push down on

the top. And, and I'll give some thought to, how to

do that. It's, it's, that, just thinking that

through probably would take ten or fifteen minutes to think about how to do that.

But that's an example of combing the notion of the excavator head with the

notion of pushing. In order to get the, get this to work.

So now I've taken some time to think about some of those and I've articulated four of

them as little more nicely done sketches. So this is an example of the end product

of that kind of process. So to illustrate, the push shovel.

If, if you, if you can sup, if you can get a little sliding mechanism here, such that

when I push down on this thing, The scoop first makes contact with the ice

cream. But then as you push further, it forces,

through this little connection here, it forces a rotation of the scooper in order

to create, cut a scoop. Through a pushing action, which seems like

it might be a lot better than what normally happens with the rest.

Now, let me just point out this one here. This idea actually didn't come from the

functional decomposition. It came from thinking about kind of one of

the pin points, keeps the wrist torque that's applied when you scoop.

The wrist brace idea is simply you have that brace come up over the wrist to take

relieve the torque on the user. This is a, is a resolution and I thought

about how to draw it a little more clearly of the punch and twist idea.

The idea is you push, the sharp cutter, punches a cylinder, but then you use your

thumb here to rotate that cylinder, and it has kind of a diagonal opening to it so

that, that edge cuts the, cuts a plug, as, as you, as you rotate it.

And then this is a resolution or a little nicer illustration of how that claw polar

cutter might, might work. And then one additional ideal, on the pull

and scrape is that, you might even be able to make it so it had a little hinge or

something, so, you may could even use it in, in two modes. You could use in kind of

conventional scoop mode, and you could rotate it down, so you could pull, and,

scrape, with the scraping action more in line with where it is you're pulling, with

your hand. All right?

So that's, those are illustrations of how it is that you take a functional

decomposition, use it to get some insights for what the elements of the design might

be, and then combine them in order to create integrated solutions.