In previous videos, we explained that resources are allocated dynamically. But how does the eNodeB inform the terminals of which resource is dedicated to which UE? In this video we will study the principles of allocation in L. T. E further. And then, we will have a look at underlying signalling exchanges. So at the end, you will understand how a terminal is informed that it is going to receive data and how he can ask the eNodeB for a resource to send data. There are three main rules about allocation in L. T. E. Firstly: everything is centralized by the eNode B for both the downlink and the uplink. So, a mobile cannot transmit if it has not been given permission. Secondly, as discussed in previous videos: resources are only allocated when there is an actual need to transmit. And thirdly: At each sub-frame, so every millisecond, the eNode B publishes an allocation table to inform the mobiles of the resource allocation for both the uplink and the downlink. Before continuing we have to make a point about addresses. Obviously, we need addresses to identify the terminals. We could use the same identifiers introduced in the previous lessons of this MOOC (IMSI, GUTI, and so on). But these are not really suited to our requirements as they are unique within the whole network. However, in our case, the geographic range is limited to one single cell, because the scheduling is handled independently by each eNodeB. And we need these addresses to be as short as possible, because they are used frequently. Remember that an allocation table is published every millisecond. So, L. T. E introduces a new identifier the RNTI: Radio Network Temporary Identifier. It is managed by the eNode B and valid only within its cell. When a terminal arrives in a cell, the eNode B assigns it a new RNTI. The RNTI is coded on 16 bits. This is much shorter than other identifiers but still allows for approximately 65 thousand mobiles per cell. Let’s look at how things work on the downlink, so when data is transferred TO the terminal. We have seen that the eNodeB can use one or several resource blocks per sub-frame to communicate with a given UE. At the beginning of the sub-frame, the eNodeB publishes a kind of map of the sub-frame to let terminals know which Resource Blocks hold data that are intended for them. This is what we will call “allocation table” in this MOOC. For this sub-frame, the allocation table here is published in the blue space. Resource blocks 12 and 13 here are allocated to the mobile with RNTI 63, this green mobile. In the same way, resource blocks 4 to 7 are allocated to the mobile number 62, the red one. One advantage of doing this is energy saving. If a mobile notices that no data is sent to him on this sub-frame, it can turns to standby mode until the next sub-frame. And even if it has to receive data, for example our green phone here, it can avoid wasting energy decoding data not intended for it and focus its efforts only on its own resource blocks. Now, let’s talk about uplink, so when a mobile needs to send data. Uplink uses the same principle as downlink. Resources are allocated by the eNodeB. And an allocation table is published at the same time as the table for the downlink. However, there are some differences because the eNode B does not know when the terminals need to transmit. So, before transmitting, the terminals first have to make a request to the eNodeB. It’s a bit of a paradox because, in order to transmit, the terminal has to transmit a request. We’ll see later on how this problem is solved. For the moment, just consider that the UE can send such a request. And that, in response, the eNode B allocates it a resource in the next allocation table. When the mobile receives this information, it has to prepare a transport block, to encode it, to modulate it, etc, as we have seen in the previous videos. So, the UE is not ready to transmit its message immediately. That’s why the allocation table published by the eNode B for the uplink is actually for the fourth upcoming sub-frame. In other words, for what is going to happen in 4 milliseconds. This graphic shows the L. T. E frame patterns for downlink and uplink. In both cases, resources are reserved to transmit control data and user data separately. On the downlink, the control channel is shown in blue. In particular, it transports the allocation tables of uplink and downlink. It uses the first resource elements of each sub-frame. This should remind you of the resource elements in purple when we saw Resource Blocks. The rest makes up the data channel that is used to transfer the user data. On the uplink, the control channel is displayed in gray. It is made up of the resource blocks situated at either end of the band. And resource blocks transporting data are located at the center of the band. Earlier, I told you I was going to explain how terminals can transmit a request to the base station, when they actually don’t have a resource to transmit. Well, they send their request on this uplink control channel. For this channel L. T. E, specifies a special access mechanism which gives the right to transmit, in turn, to each terminal of the cell. Just a quick word to explain that L. T. E generalizes the notion of “channel.” In fact, the standard defines numerous channels with rather barbarian acronyms. You can see here the names of channels, for example, PDSCH, PDCCH, PUCCH, etc. But, don’t worry. We won’t get down to that level of detail. For this course, just keep in mind that we differentiate between data channels and control channels. In a nutshell, allocation is managed by the eNode B for both uplink and downlink. And resources are only allocated when there is a need for transmission. Exchanges about allocation are made on dedicated control channels. On the uplink, the terminal must first make a request on the control channel, before being allocated resources, which can be used 4 sub-frames later.