Turning to education, John G. Jones was one of the first instructors to salesmanship, and he offered a sales management course at New York University, way back in 1915. That's over 100 years for those of you keeping count. The course included the following topics; selecting and training sales people, planning sales equipment, methods of compensation, territory problems, sales contests, conventions and quotas. During the 1920's, a few writers were offered a broadened definition of sales management which also included marketing tasks. In 1920, J George Frederick, proclaimed in his book, Modern Sales Management, a new era for the field of sales management. An era of development, respectability and new found professionalism. Frederick saw the sales manager as a major player within the total marketing function which in turn encompassed an entire enterprise. He portrayed the sales manager as a top level executive contributing to policy and responsible for its implementation through the sales force. Frederick sales manager was concerned with product quality, and new product development, as determined by the needs of the market. It was the sales manager's job, he wrote, to synchronize the standardization needs of production with the market demand for varied product lines. Sales management had begun to evolve from a narrow supervisory role of the pre- 1920 era, to a broader one that embraced the marketing concept. This probably began the debate that continues today over the symbiotic relationship between marketing and sales. One of the tools used in sales management is psychological tests. You might be surprised to learn that the issue of the efficacy of psychological testing for sales person selection was first addressed in the early 1900's. For example, a references made by Butler Dubawa and Jones, in 1914, to the Indigenous oral and written examinations designed to test one's accuracy, mental alertness, and ability to reason. Walter Dill Scott, a psychology professor at Northwestern University, became the Director of the Bureau of salesmanship at Carnegie Tech in 1916, and was given numerous grants by numerous large organizations to develop improved methods of sales persons selection. On the First World Salesmanship Congress in 1916, Scott performed mental alertness tests on young salesman to predict which ones would most likely succeed. Interestingly, the discussion of salesperson's selection during the 20's and 30's, reveals a rejection of the earlier view of the salesperson as an entity apart from the firm. Poor performance was seen as a negative to both the salesperson and the firm. It became clear, the customers were assets, and selling skills were recognized as valuable. Another sales management focus is compensation. One of the earlier pioneers was Harry Toast Dell. He published a book on sales management in 1925. Toast Dell wrote about compensation planning. He said, ''Four factors are needed to be considered in developing a compensation plan. Number one, the income necessary to maintain a reasonable standard of living. Number two, the market for salespeople. Number three, the philosophy of the firm regarding payment at, above, or below the market. And number four, the nature of the product.'' He mentioned that employee turnover is an excellent indicator of the efficacy of the plan. Toast Dell criticized straight salary plans for their failure to motivate sales people. However, he also agreed that commission plans increase effort that also heighten rivalry and turnover. They emphasize short-term sales, they reduced new account development, and foster sales people independence. So, I asked you, are things in sales compensation any different today? So, where does this leave us? We see a number of interesting developments. Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and automation, will greatly assist the sales force. The simple and repetitive tasks performed by a sales person will be automated. We see more specialization. In some, see the sales process as being broken into several parts with one person focusing on each part, like a throwback to the division of labor. Lead generators and marketers will produce leads. Project managers will do research and pre-sale activities. Account executives will conduct discovery work, presentations, and deal closures. Account managers will implement what's been sold all while providing customer service. In short, we think that the future is going to be a very exciting time for the sales manager. So there you go. A short history of management and sales management. It goes to show that many of the concepts that we present today as cutting edge have very long, very deep roots.