There are many impressive future trends in additive manufacturing both from the point of view of the technology itself and also from the point of view of social and business implications that this technology can bring. First, I mean, let's look at some of these trends, right? First, serial production, as I mentioned the additive manufacturing as the technology is it in the states that where companies are using it for tools for rapid prototyping. There's some cereal production when I believe in the future, we'll see that expansion into mourning the serial production because there is the technology is evolving in a way where the cost is coming down, it is much easier and widely available. And that will lead to more 3D printed parts manufacturing as a concept being used in serial production. FDM, medal or the fused deposition modeling. Which is actually one of the techniques of 3D printing that we talk towards on the techniques I think that will become more popular especially is metal. Right now, FDM is used in thermal printing parts and thermoplastics and other polymers. And now this particular technology is now widely available across many materials including metal and is also becoming cheaper and easier to access. So we will probably in future see more adoption of this in widely by in the manufacturing context. Then we will also see more hybrid manufacturing country. What I mean by hybrid manufacturing is, we have the traditional manufacturing as we understand. And then we have the editor manufacturing right then we'll see a combination of the two. In fact we did see some of the examples like if you recall in this course we talked about general motors using that for rapid prototyping, they were using on other parts that actually kind of had been taken to the calling the brakes. That particular part is used for prototyping. So when you see that they may use a 3D printing for prototyping but they may not use it for serial production. So you see a combination of manufacturing and the traditional manufacturing coexisting and complementing each other to kind of so that they work together for the bigger benefit, business benefit for the manufacturers. So it can actually already manufacturing can speed up the prototyping at the design stage of that particular part. But once the part is you know, kind of finalize they may go to the traditional manufacturing if they are producing millions for the cost advantage that we talked about. So there is more and more, we'll see the coexisting complementing each other of traditional and the editor manufacturing techniques. Another trend that I think we'll see is the development of the discovery of new materials. They have different strengths are also smart materials I think the material science. Well now we are thinking in terms of there are you can actually place sensors and materials you can actually kind of not only sensors, you can also put logic in the sense that material's actually take their input. And there are intelligence in the material to kind of adapt depending on the circumstances. You would see more of this and you'll see unique applications and this is not for mass production. But this would be kind of experiments will start in terms of unique application of these materials in situations where they are monitored. We'll also see high specialization in a of three different usage in terms of because especially whether the human organs or any of these highly personalized requirement. Then this will give opportunity for more co creation more partnership between manufacturers and the 3D printers and the additive manufacturing ecosystem players to come together to solve these high specialization problems and come out of the product apart for that. I think the concept of generative design on cloud platforms, another thing that is evolving, I think that is connected with additive manufacturing. But goes beyond it and manufacturing to make it easier to understand, let me kind of simplify this. There is this concept called generative design. If you're interested in this topic and then in additive manufacturing 3D printing space. You should actually learn more about this topic and this because this is the future of where design is going, where you are not actually going to kind of precisely define the parameters. Like for example, if you're now defining this try designing this particular box, you want to come to define that. Well I want kind of a reasonably tick box, I'm going to carry some marbles in this and that's how you define the use of this box and then you give some design parameters for this box and then they actually the traditional way they go and design this. But in the generator design, everything is kind of digital, right? In terms of what you do is a digital platform which are often in the cloud platforms. What you can do is you can actually define the problem in a much higher way, you can say that almost define what I mean. You're going to be using this box for, you don't give any dimensions of any design specification of how thick the box should be or what the material should be. You just give much broader design requirements. And then the algorithm, mathematical algorithms actually, and the intelligence machine learning techniques would actually go and explore the design space and come back with the optimal design for that usage. So in other words, you're actually kind of not defining the requirements at that granular level. You're defining the problem, okay? In terms of what is the problem, you're trying to solve and what are the usage is going to be put to and then for that you say the design is maximized and that's how the automated design comes in place. And then once the designer coming place and you can actually take it to a manufacturing process and get a treatment. And I think this concept of generative design is now starting I think it's being experimented and already we have some parts being experimented in this. So that's one of the future trends. Now, the last point about distributed printing capabilities. I already talked about this in what manufacturing could do. Now this has no geopolitical social socioeconomic implications as well in terms of future trends, I'm not saying that we are that yet. But there is potential here because one of the one of the reasons behind 3D printing being hyped is because it could fundamentally change the structure of the supply chain. For example, more recently now we're just kind of coming out of the global pandemic. And what the global pandemic is actually highlighted is very, very big risk that all the manufacturers were sitting on. In many cases they might have actually kind of co located a lot of their supplier base in one geographical location, right? And often if you see why companies took the decision is because outsourcing of manufacturing because it is often led by both quality and cost are primarily the cost argument because if you go to East Asia. If you go to issue of manufacturing, the labor is cheaper and hence the you can have an opportunity to manufacturer at a much cheaper cost, right? That was the logic behind what led to outsourcing. But if you go back to edit a manufacturing now, we just talked about how it is actually reducing the manual intervention, right? The human intervention part is significantly reduced, then that fundamental raises the question, do you need to outsource manufacturing for labor costs, arbitration? You don't you may not have to. So in other words, through distributors printing capabilities. What I'm arguing is in the future there is a possibility for companies if already manufacturing kind of picks up and get to the level of serial production, they may actually rethink the structure of the supply chains. And then and ask the question, do we need to produce the parts in the in different countries, as we are located right now or with this particular capabilities? Should we rethink how our suppression should be organized? So these are some of the trends. I kind of outline what we can expect an additive manufacturing. It's a very, very exciting technology area. I'm sure this will kind of, we saw the market potential in some of the industry reports, I am very, very optimistic about what's possible here.