Let's first take a look at this LGN. LGN, if you make a slice the brain then you will have these kind of pictures. This is how LGN looks like. Is the dorsal thalamus. [FOREIGN] This LGN is quite interesting. You can see these stripes, right? There are total six layers, okay? [FOREIGN] This is a link coming from, okay? [FOREIGN] It is it is like a unique here, okay? There are six layers. So in the brain at most, in context, okay? This kind of typical kind of structure. All the brain's structures, you have six layers of cells. So let's take a look at how the eye connect to LGN, okay? This is the eye, of course what comes out from the eye? So, what comes out from the eye to connect to the brain? >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> Is the axle of the gengnis there, right. So the gengnis there, the axle coming from the eye then will through the LGN, make the connection. But it's quite interesting, okay? Depth targeting. So the laser, [FOREIGN]. Now, look at here. This is considered right eye. This is the left eye. And then you can see for this side, LGN. You have two, three, five, layers two, three, five will receive the input from the same side of the eye. And then one, four, five, we see the opposite side, the eye input. So, the there we go from this side, layer two, three, five, right? How about the visual cortex, let's really go to the next step, the visual cortex. The visual cortex is this region, right? If we make a section again, this is how the visual cortex looks like. You have a six layers. One, two, three to six, okay? So from this one it's quite interesting, okay? So the LGN, you have six layers, and the LGN receives the input from the retinal ganglion cell, and then this visual contact of course also receives input from LGN, right? But only this layer, this layer four. They are 4C. Okay, look at this tractor. The layer 4 is most like abundant occupation here, right? And then you have ABC. And even within the C you have alpha beta, the layout. So the LGN input, majority of the LGN input only comes to you, Layer 4C. This is a makes synapse with the dendrite of the neurons within this cortex, okay? And the other layers different output. For example, like [FOREIGN] targeted, project to the other brain region, okay? The information from this cortex area then will transfer to other areas for the processing. So we talk about LGN you had with eyes specific input, right? And how about this region? Now this region as we discussed, only layer 4C is the major input from the LGN. This is, there is a beautiful work, actually from and [INAUDIBLE]. What they did is quite dramatic, okay? So they inject some dye into the eye. There, that actually is the radioactive crawling, and this one [FOREIGN], and then this can be used to synthesize some protein. [FOREIGN] And if this guy was taken by the cell [FOREIGN] so those can be transported to the terminal. [FOREIGN] LGN [FOREIGN] by the transport to the tubes axon terminal [FOREIGN] If you inject this protein here, and then the cell will take up this guy, and that protein, and the protein will go the the LGN by their excellent delivery. And then, because it's a bit over, and the danger. Only those LGN cells, with the dendrite, have the snap connection, with those neurons. Dendrite can pick up those protein. And then you can go to the Visual Cortex, okay so you did this experiment. What you need to do is actually [FOREIGN], if you get the leo four as we talk about the Visual Cortex, leo four. Get an input from the LGN. Right now if you only inject one eye, then you can see these kind of stripes there, they're kind of strange. [FOREIGN] You got staining. What it tells you It tells you it's actually eye specific connection from the LGN. You have the eye specific input from the eye, from the ganglion cell. And then you still preserve this eye specific information in the cortex. [FOREIGN] Okay? [FOREIGN] If you do the recording. So the site of these stripes actually Is about to occur 500 micrometer. [FOREIGN] On the stripes, [FOREIGN]. But these stripes, they actually can be. If you go down to different layers, these stripes also [FOREIGN] ocular, dominance, colors. [FOREIGN] If you do a recording from those neurons, then you have a pipette. At a different layer. Go down go down. All these cells actually in this pathway will respond to only one eye stimulation. If you recall that from this one and the different layers and you will only activate a nozzle eye, then you can get a response.