[MUSIC] Anti patterns, as I said before, can arise from group behavior or individual behavior. Many of these anti patterns that arise from individual behavior are easy for onlookers to identify. But difficult for the perpetrator to see. It's easy to criticize when the problem doesn't arise with us. But this very same attitude can make us blind to our own missteps. In order to address many of the anti patterns that I'm about to describe, it's important to encourage a culture of open mindedness, self-reflection, and improvement. Let's start with one of the best known anti patterns: micromanagement. Micromanagement is so common it's almost a buzz word. It's a very real issue that many organizations face. Micromanagement is what happens when someone in a management position tends to want to be involved in every little detail of a project. They're usually the people who ask to be CCed on every email coming to and from their team and feel the need to offer their opinion on every decision made, or perspective shared in the workplace. Micromanagers are the people who want to know where the developers are at every minute and what they're doing. In essence micromanagement is about control. Micromanagement stems from a lack of trust in one way or another. This doesn't mean that this mistrust is grounded in anything real, or that the micromanager's fears are realistic. Micromanagement is usually a symptom of the manager's own fears, insecurities, and stresses. Micromanagers don’t micro manage with the intention of bringing their developers morale down. They do it because they feel as though without their intervention, the whole project would fall apart. Maybe they do it because of overly ambitious time lines, poor product quality, or simply a fear that they don’t have the right people for the job. Whatever the reason, it's important to realize that the micromanager is the source of the problem. Often those who are managed by this person take the blame for their behavior. Not only is this bad for team morale, it's bad for the product. As I've shown before, developer morale doesn't just affect the individual developer, it also affects their ability to work productively and collaborate with their colleagues. Nobody, at any level of an organization wants to work in an environment where their mental health is at risk. So how is the problem of a micromanager solved? Ultimately, the solution has to come from the micromanager themselves. Like any of these anti patterns at an individual level, there's no quick or easy fix. To really address this issue, the manager who exhibits this behavior must be willing to admit that their behavior has a negative impact on the team, and take steps toward improvement. This could mean seeking further management training, or making an effort to be more self aware and adjust their behavior. Which of the following is not a behavior exhibited by micromanagers? A. asking to be CC'd on all project correspondence. B. Giving unsolicited advice to their team members. C. Having short daily meetings to assess project status, or D. Constantly focusing on how the project can fail. The answer is C. Micromanagers exhibit a lot of these behaviors, but short daily status meetings aren't the cause for concern. In fact, they're common on SCRUM projects, they're just daily stand ups, an anti pattern that's closely related to the micromanager is the seagull manager. The someone you don't see until a problem arises at which point the manager flies in makes a lot of noise, dumps on everyone, then flies out. To quote Ken Blanchard a writer in the field, it's funny, but it happens. These are a different breed of manager from the micromanager. And their motivations for their behavior are very different. A seagull manager can cause just as much commotion and stress within the development team as a micromanager. They may even inadvertently become the cause of a project turning into a fire drill project. It's stressful for development teams to constantly live in fear of when the next dump will be. Like the micromanager, the seagull manager's distinctive style is usually caused by a busy schedule, inadequate planning, and a great deal of stress. The behavior of seagull manager could be addressed similarly to the micromanager. But often the best way to address the problem is to allow the manager to lighten their work load. Of course, as a software product manager, this may not be within your scope. If you suspect that you might be exhibiting signs of seagull management, it might be time to reevaluate your schedule and how you interact with your teams. That last point about reevaluating how you interact with your teams is important on its own. Sometimes a manager can become a seagull manager in the way that they interact with the team. Dropping their workload won't do much if the team still feels as though they aren't able to communicate with their manager properly. The biggest culprit for this disjointed communication is email. Email communication can turn a well intentioned manager sour very quickly. The problem with email is that there's often no context. They're too formal for most communications, and it's easy to misinterpret what the writer says. This is such a common problem that email as a primary means of communication has actually been identified as an anti pattern as well. This one's an easy fix, take the time to communicate in person. On remote teams, where this isn't possible, try other solutions such as online team chat services, video conferencing, and phone calls. Take the time to give the people your attention and your investment will pay back with dividends. Serena is having problems getting her team to respond to her email about the project status. Which of the following is the best solution to this problem? A. Send more emails. B. Call the developer's team lead. C. Nothing. Or D. Talk to the developers in person. The best option is for Serena to talk to her developers in person. Email can be divisive, and it is easily misunderstood. The correct answer is D.