Welcome to Session Two, which is all about what animal welfare is. The term animal welfare is being used increasingly by businesses, consumers, veterinarians, and politicians. However, it can mean different things to different people. In fact, in some parts of the world, animal welfare has no meaningful translation. Interestingly, animal welfare is no more or less difficult to define than human welfare. I cannot assume that what I believe to be a state of happiness in me is the same as for my friends and for my colleagues. In general, for most humans we would say that enjoying good welfare means that we're in good health, have good wealth, and have freedom of choice. We could assume of course that animal welfare is somewhat similar with different definitions of animal welfare emphasizing different aspects of a bigger picture. It seems that animal welfare will be defined in a way that is meaningful in terms of the way the animal is used, the way it is viewed in society, and the interests and purpose of the person who is doing the defining. For example, veterinarians and farmers have tended to judge animal welfare chiefly in terms of animal health and the physical environment. When assessments are made using only one dimension of an animal's welfare, there is of course the risk that not all animal needs are catered for. There is also the problem that there are differences in opinion in relation to what is acceptable. There's no doubt that many animal livestock producers will hold views about what are acceptable animal welfare standards that may differ from advocates for less intensive, more naturalistic housing systems for livestock. And this can often lead to tensions. These differences are also seen in the scientific definitions of welfare, with some emphasizing the physical well-being. Some more about natural lifestyles, and others focusing on the animal's psychological state. In order to be able to properly assess welfare, we need to be able to agree on what it is. And most agree that animal welfare is a state or condition that changes depending on the animal's experience and its ability to deal with the challenges it may face at any given time. In fact, Donald Broom has defined animal welfare as the state of an animal in relation to its ability to cope with its environment. Over recent years, animal scientists have become increasingly concerned about animal feelings. Realizing that it is the way an animal feels about its situation that is the most important dimension in relation to discussions about its welfare. The assumption that animals are conscious and capable of experiencing negative sensations and emotions is at the core of most people's concern about animal welfare. Over the past few years, the term animal sentience has been increasingly used in animal welfare. There has been an acceptance, not just by pet owners, but also scientists, animal producers, and policy makers of the notion that animals are sentient. And thus capable of positive and negative feelings such as pain and fear, as well as happiness and pleasure. This has been an important development for animals all over the world. What this has led to is a realization that animals are not just there for human benefit, but they have needs and feelings of their own. And that if these are not satisfied, these animals are likely to suffer. A well-known U.K. animal welfare scientist, professor John Webster, summed this up very nicely by saying, it's not what we think or say that matters. It's what we do. Over the past 15 years, there has been a huge increase in public concern about animal welfare. And an associated proliferation of animal welfare research, as well as international voices demanding improvements in animal welfare, not just to benefit animals, but also for enhancing human well-being. This is not just in countries where animal welfare has had a long tradition. But also in parts of the world where animals have historically had little value, and where there's still a long way to go to improve human attitudes towards animals and their welfare. Animal welfare science provides us with a lens through which we can address concerns about animal welfare through using objective measures of animal responses. Moving us much closer to understanding the world through their eyes. Using this approach can provide us with a universal language, one that transcends culture, religion, and language. And ensures that the truth about animals and there welfare cannot be disputed.