[SOUND] So, we could think about deprivation in humans as being quite different than it is in animals. So, and, and, it's complicated, right? So, of course, you know, in the popular, culture there's the idea of Tarzan, right? Tarzan, maybe in the Disney version of it. In the movie, he grows up with Calla [INAUDIBLE], who brings him up and, then the human invaders come in. Of course, he falls in love with Jane. There are some jokes about that for example. There is one Far Side comic a few years ago which showed Tarzan, you know swinging along on his vine right. Approaching Jane and he sees Jane, you know, and he's very eager to communicate with you and so he's thinking all these very complex thoughts. You know, it's very nice to meet you, I'm Tarzan, you know. How do you do I'm the lord of the jungle, you know. It's great, what's your name. So he has these very complex thoughts and then he lands on the, you know, branch. And he says, me Tarzan, you Jane. And a [SOUND] right? And the idea is that, of course, what happens is Tarzan, of course, is deprived of language. And so he never communicates like humans do. It's very what we, we might call telegraphic speech. Me Tarzan. You bad monkey. Right? And so, there are real world examples of this Tarzan effect, if you will. Victor of Aveyron. There've been movies made about Victor. And of course, Victor was found in the forest, right, having been brought up by wolves. And, he was brought into human society and the attempts were made to socialize him. And, they weren't quite successful, right? He never really was like a human. A much more tragic case, I mean, not that Victor's wasn't tragic, was Genie, discovered in 1970. And and basically locked up in a closet by her father and brought up by her mother and her sibling who were not allowed to talk to her by the father. So, she was deprived entirely of language essentially chained to a toilet. Tortured for 11 years and finally discovered in 1970. There are many studies done with Jeanie initially. One of the things that was interesting to look at her language development. So researchers wanted to know, this was Susan Curtis at this time in UCLA, wanted to know. What would her language look like given that she was essentially not spoken to for the first 11 years of, of her life? And interestingly, Jeanie could develop vocabulary. She could learn new words quite well. And so she learned new words and her vocabulary developed pretty quickly relative to a, to a young child. But what Jeanie couldn't do is, genie had a lot more difficulty combining words. So typically when we look at children and we looked at, we look at children, when researchers look at children and see how many words do they say and at what point do they combine them. They combine them roughly at about 50 words. So at about 50 words, children will start to combine those two words together. Now, again you want to realize not every child is the same. There's a lot of variability. Right, but this is roughly when it's seen. Jeanie didn't start combining words until about 200 words. When she had 200 words. Then she began to combine them. She also learned some word endings, right? Like the I-N-G on ending, right? And some very basic forms of grammar. But her vocabulary development was much better than her grammatical development. This suggests that there's something about grammatical development yhat involves, early learning of language. The other thing Jeanie struggled with was pronunciation. She had difficulty pronouncing words. Again, suggesting that there's something about early learning that involves pronouncing words.