[MUSIC] In the previous sections of this course, we considered age of acquisition and proficiency as two predictors or ways of looking at the bilingual brain. And in those sections, we looked first at the nature of each of those factors in the monolingual literature and in the non-language literature. And then we proceeded to look at it within the bilingual literature. And we'll take a similar type of approach when we think about cognitive control. Control was first introduced into literature by Putzel. Putzel found this patient who seemed to be stuck in a language, at least that was how Putzel described this patient to be. And so, the idea arose that there was a language switch, that there was some mechanism that allowed people to either switch into one language or switch to another. And in this case, the switch wasn't functioning as well, and so the patient was stuck. Examples of control exist in everyday life. There's a well documented literature on the effects of driving and multitasking, during driving and what type of control is needed. And I'll talk a little bit about that in, in a few minutes. One example I like to give is when I think about cooking. So, when I used to cook dinner, I would always start in the way that I ate. So, I would think about the protein and I would cook the protein, if it was chicken or fish or meat. And then I would think about the vegetables. And then I would think about the carbohydrate, whether that's rice, or it could be spaghetti, or something of that sort, and quinoa. And so, what would happen was that I would have all the protein done. And then we would be, everybody would be hungry, basically almost at the table, and we'd be waiting for the rice or waiting for the quinoa. And over time, what began to happen is that I began to plan my meals. So I began to think, okay, what takes the longest? Well, it turns out the carbohydrates sometimes takes the longest to cook, so I better start that first. Then I know the, the vegetables cook relatively quickly, but it, it, they may be a little bit slow, and the protein is actually relatively fast. So, I began to order everything so that it would be ready at about the same time. And by doing this planning, I was using control. I was planning through. I was strategically choosing what to start when. And of course, over time, as I got better and better, it required less control and I could then cook without thinking as much. But there was a point there where I needed to exert control in order to be able to really think about how the meal was going to turn out and how to plan effectively. And it's in those types of activities that we see the effect of control.