Welcome. If you reach this video, you have been going through a large number of exciting iterations. You traveled a theoretical and practical road towards designing and implementing sustainable models aimed at landscape restoration. Congratulations. I'm Rob Van Tulder, professor in International Business Society Management. Maybe you remember me, I introduced this course as one in which we would be able to zoom in, on a particularly wicked but also tangible societal challenge. That of landscape restoration. Now it's time to zoom out. I argued that landscape restoration is a vital part of the Global Agenda for Sustainable Development, as covered by sustainable development goal 15 life on land. I also argued that effectively dealing with this challenge, is like dealing with the canary in the gold mine. Landscape degradation is a sign of a poor treatment of most other sustainable development goals as well. Let me explain, life on land is directly related to life below water, climate change, clean water and sanitation and good health and well being, as covered by other global goals. A negative approach to life on land has direct negative repercussions for the achievement of these goals. But an effective approach to life on land, also creates all sorts of positive spillover effects. This is the so-called nexus challenge. Refers to the direction of landscape degradation into one of lasting landscape restoration, requires a better understanding of this nexus challenge. In the preamble to the SDG agenda, the United Nations declared that, ''The inter-linkages and integrated nature of the sustainable development goals, are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new agenda is realized. If we realize our ambitions, across the full extent of the agenda, the lives of all will be profoundly improved and our world will be transformed for the better''. The UN therefore, also introduced a five P framework. A successful operationalization, of an effective business approach to landscape restoration, also means, that you understand and apply this framework. Let me explain, simply put the five P framework acknowledges, that a successful approach to any SDG requires serving four principles at the same time. People, planet, prosperity, and peace. Without peace, no prosperity, without prosperity, no human development, without human development, no peace and without human development, prosperity and peace, no resilient planet and finally without resilient and stable planet, it's hard to maintain peace and prosperity. Linking them all together is the fifth P, partnering. I'm sure that you have experienced that these five Ps are relevant for SDG 15 and you have included them in your business model. In particular, partnering forms an essential and often under-represented precondition for effective implementation strategies. It is thereby important to take critical questions into account like, do I have a co-relation of the willing or a co-relation of the needed? How to monitor preferably together with partners, progress in our common goals. Furthermore, how can our partnership take changing circumstances into account and be flexible to address other issues that pop up? Here we can observe that the actual litmus test of effectively addressing SDG 15, will probably only appear if we understand how it is related to the different other SDGs. Let's start with ecologic SDGs, number 13 and 14. But also with SDG six, that deals with water and sanitation and SDG three, that deals with personal health. That nexus in turn is related to the organization food systems in value chains or in urban environments. SDGs two, 11 and 12, which in turn is affected by the more economic and social SDGs, such as poverty, education, gender and income inequality, energy and infrastructure. SDGs one, four, five, seven, eight, nine and 10, which finally is related to the proper operation of institutions. Ecological degradation feeds corruption, war and other conflicts over common goods, such as clean water and fertile soils. But institute Institutions and effective partnering also create the conditions under which lasting effects can be realized. SDGs 16 and 17. So, the nexus challenge immediately requires a further understanding on how all SDGs can be linked to each other. One way of approaching this, is to define more macroeconomic policies, in which economic and ecological growth strategies go hand in hand. This course has researched the name, ''Inclusive Green Growth''. This picture shows how all SDGs can be related, but how you make this link depends on local circumstances. Where to start, where to invest first? The four returns framework that is supported by the enable project, it pictures the nexus challenge as follows; It shows a hierarchy of interventions which are linked by partnering SGD 17 and should result in prosperity forever. Mind you in terms of what should come first, we still have a long way of research to go. For instance, it is increasingly clear that without inclusive income, SDG eight and addressing poverty, SDG one, it will be very hard to address any other ecological issue. But it is also been found that gender equality, SDG five, when achieved has immense positive spillover effects on all the other SDGs. Luckily, these aspects and strategic considerations are also increasingly included in concrete business models. In the corporate mission related to that, so-called inclusive business models can be considered a prerequisite for companies to address SDG 15, in the most innovative and scalable way. But we need more research to figure out how to effectively address all issues at the same time. Mind you, not theoretical research necessarily but action research, learning by doing. Erasmus University is keen to support you in such efforts. Make it concrete and actionable. Landscape degradation, therefore still remains the canary in the mine, the litmus test of relevant change. We hope that you feel comfortable enough, on the basis of the gained insights in this course and in the topic of business model innovation and landscape restoration, to take greater degrees of complexity into account. The booklet that I wrote, provides the first stepping stone and framework for that. Thank you for your attention. Good luck with your next steps, in being a force for positive change in this world.