Last week when we were analyzing the Beethoven Bagatelle, we ran into a chord that was, well it looked like a two chord that was major, and it was in first inversion, and it was just before a five chord. And I talked about how we would analyze that as a five of five chord, and I called it a secondary dominant. I want to look more at those kinds of chords this week. These secondary dominants, or some of you may be familiar with what's called an applied dominant. These show up all over classical music. And they are the third kind of chromaticism that we looked at. So the first kind was, you know, the Neapol, the alterations of chords to create Neapolitans and augmented sixths. It's things that, you know, you can't identify without this very special name. Then there were the borrowed chords, which is basically borrowing chords from the parallel mode. And now these form a final kind of chromaticism, these secondary dominants. Now these secondary dominance, though, are also key to modulation in classical music. We're not going to talk about modulation in, in this course. But we do, or I feel at least we should, talk about secondary dominance. So let me go through it a little bit. Here we've got a simple one two six five to five progression in c major. Move that up a bit. Let me play this so you can hear. [MUSIC] Good. And we note that the two chord is actually a fifth above the five chord. And so if we wanted to turn this into, not a two six five, from a two six five into a five six five of five. That is to make it a dominant of the dominant. Then we just need to change one note, we've got the root, we've got the third, we've got the fifth, and we've got the seventh. And the only thing holding us back from sounding like a dominant seventh chord is the fact that it's minor, you know. Because we have the root, the root and the seventh are a minor seventh apart. So the problem is the triad. The triad is minor. If we turn the triad into major, it becomes a dominant chord [SOUND]. So there's our third and we raise the third to make it major. And now, if we go back and listen to it. Actually, what I'll do instead [SOUND]. Is this [SOUND]. Whoops. And we can compare them, right next to each other. [MUSIC] We can hear this leading tone resolving up to the tonic. But even when we get here, we, it still sounds like a five chord. It doesn't really, we're not really convinced that it's all of the sudden a new tonic. So in this sense it's just a coloristic effect. Just like the Neopolitan or the augmented sixth, they're borrow chords. Now I call these progressions within progressions and if you go out on the web and you go and Google that it'll probably just lead you back to this website or to this class. No one really uses this terminology. But I think its kind of useful none the less, as a way to describe this. We could look at this and say look, there's a five one, a one to five progression happening here. And inside that one to five progression, there's another progression happening, which is also one to five. So this is a, or sorry, five to one. This is a five to one progression. And this is the one to five progression. So we can see that we have a kind of progression inside of a larger progression. And that's why I call them progressions with inside a pr, with, progressions within progressions. The other thing that these secondary dominants bring up, is the idea of function. Now I said very early on in the class, that when we look at the chords of tonal harmony in classical music, we find that there's only one instance of a major triad with a minor seventh. And that's on the dominant seventh chord. So that any time that we get a major triad with a dominant seven, it functions as a dominant. Now, of course you can have passing chords where they don't really have a strong function. But in a situation like this, this chord functions as a dominant. So this is why we can't explain this, for instance, as like, you know if we can't do this. whoops. You'd say, well, why can't we call it a borrowed chord? Well, first of all, who, who is it borrowing from? Because in C minor, this chord isn't major. Well, why can't we just explain it as a major to six five going to five? What's wrong with that? Because it doesn't explain the relationship between these chords. The relationship between these chords is a dominant to tonic relationship. And so we need the Roman numeral analysis to explain that dominant to tonic relationship. That's why we have this, at times frustrating to students, notation of the five of five. But this issue of function is really important because, and, and I want to look at it with borrowed chords. because, just because something's a major triad for instance, doesn't mean that it's a dominant chord. When we make an alteration, doesn't mean that we need to explain things as, all of a sudden as a five of something. We have to look at how it functions. Let's move on to G minor. We'll move on to this example. G minor. One chord, the four six four, the pedal six four, going back to one. Let me play this. [MUSIC] Okay. Borrowed chord. If we analyze this, what's right after it. Let me play this with the borrowed chord, so this rather than being minor, which it's supposed to be in a minor key. This four chord is now major, we've borrowed from the parallel minor, from, from the parallel major. [MUSIC] It's beautiful sound, actually. Well, okay, now I'm going to do something, watch this. If we look at this last progression [SOUND]. We see that we've got the one chord. And you say so this is a four six four. And then, we go here and we get, well, if I have to explain that, that's like a major, the seven major chord. So usually we get the diminished chord, but here we get the seven major chord. If I play this, though, if you listen to it, you'll see that this actually doesn't explain what's happening here sonically. [MUSIC] Actually, we hear ton, we have dominant going to tonic. We can hear this dominant going to tonic. Let me play it one more time, so that you can hear it. [MUSIC] And because of that, we can explain it this way. We actually need to explain this as a five six four of the seven major chord going to seven major. So, I wanted to use this example to illustrate how we really have to listen to harmony in order to do analysis. And that we always need to put harmony in context. And that when we hear dominant tonic relationships, we have to explain them as dominant tonic relationships. Now, as we've seen here, we've got a five of five, and we have a five of seven major. Are there other fives of whatevers? The answer is yes, and what I want to do in the next video is show you some of the more common ones, so that they add to your repertoire of harmonic progressions. And then, at that point, you actually have an extremely rich toolbox of harmonic progressions that you can use to craft your music.