Last week, we were introduced to some principles of voice leading, as well as some strategies for voice leading from one chord to another chord. Whether they're a fifth apart, a second apart or a third apart. Well, when we start working with inversions, we need to be a bit more cautious with some of these voice leading rules. And this is particularly when we're working in a homorhythmic homophonic texture, like we were last week. I introduced last week Parallel Fifths and Parallel Octaves. But there are some additional things that we should be cautious of. And I want to use this video as a way to introduce those. Well, here we have a i-V-i chord progression in F minor. And we see that our V chord has been placed in first inversion. So well, voice leading wise, it looks nice. It looks like it follows the rules that we had established before, right? We keep a common tone where we have the common tone. We move voices by step, okay all our voices move by step. So this should all be fine. Well before, when we had root position chords, this would be fine, but now we have first inversion. And when we follow the voice leading rule also in the bass, what we see is that we get an octave between alto and bass, and an octave between alto and bass again. So, we have parallel octaves. And since we reverse the process to go back to the i chord from the V and first inversion, we get parallel octaves again. So we need to be cautious about how we voice lead when we use inversions. You can see that even if you apply, the principles of voice leading, like we did in the first week, those principles will not always help us avoid, some of these things that are very un-stylistic. And really, we should think about these rules as guidelines for doing stylistically correct writing. There's another thing that arises here that wasn't a problem in the first week. Because we always had root position chords, and we always voice root position chords with two roots, a third and a fifth. Well now with first inversion chords, sometimes we can have a double root or a double fifth or, in some cases, double third. Let's look at what we have here. We have a doubled third. We have the root, third, third, and fifth. Well, the fact that this doubles the third is not such a big deal. You can do this. There's a bigger problem here though, which is un-stylistic. And that's that, this note, this E natural is the leading tone. And what you find is generally the leading tone is not doubled. So we have what's called the double leading tone. This is something to avoid. Let's see why we'd want to avoid this. Well we know something about the leading tone and how it works with voice leading. We know that when we have the leading tone, that it tends to resolve to the tonic note, the first scale degree, as it does here. Well, if you have a double leading tone, then what you will often find is the desire to voice lead both of them back to the tonic. And, if you do that, you'll, of course, immediately end up with parallel octaves. So, do avoid doubling the leading tone in these homorhythmic homophonic textures. Well, we saw an example of bad voice leading that can happen when we go from the iv chord to the V chord. We see this same kind of voicing here. So we, we can see immediately that between the bass and the soprano we have parallel octaves and of course we want to avoid that. And it's very clear that between bass and tenor, we have parallel fifths. So well you know all of that already and you know, you should avoid these things. Is there anything else that's a problem here? Well, there is and actually this wouldn't have come up last week because we were working in major. In minor, what we find is that we have this interval in harmonic minor, between the sixth scale degree. So we're in the key of F minor. This is the sixth scale degree. And this is the seventh scale degree. We of course need to raise the seventh scale degree so that we can get a major V chord. So we have a, we have the sound of the dominant, which is always major. But that causes this to be the interval of an augmented second. What you find, especially in this homorhythmic homophonic vocal writing, is you avoid the augmented second. So please keep this in mind when you're doing any kind of assignment with your voice leading. Well, let's look at this one. This looks pretty okay, and well, we've got two roots here. We've got a root position i chord, 2 roots A third, a fifth, that's fine. 2 roots, third and fifth. Hmm looks like its voice is led there fairly well. It's not a common tone approach. So this one goes down the others go in contrary motion. They're all fine. Actually it's not fine. Let's look here. Now when I say parallel octaves, avoid parallel octaves, that also means the parallel unison. When we say avoid parallel fifths, that also means avoid parallel twelfths, yeah. The fact that things are an octave or not an octave apart doesn't matter, we want to avoid the, that interval. That interval type. So a fifth, a twelfth, is really the same thing. When it comes to parallel fifth for voice leading roles. Same thing with the unison in the octave. And so effectively what we have here, is a unison going to an octave by contrary motion. And we call this octave by contrary motion. This is something that should be avoided. This is often, when one does voice leading, you may occasionally feel like, oh this is a great solution. I'm not going to get parallel octaves. Great, I avoid parallel octaves and I'll just have this one go up. And so I don't get parallel octaves. Understand that that's also stylistically not something that you see. So octaves by contrary motion avoid, and the same with fifths. Fifths by contrary motion is something also to be avoided. Last one. And I promise that this'll be the last one. Well, this all actually looks fine. We've got our first inversion one chord going to a five chord. Everything's going in the same direction; there's no contrary motion, but that's not really a problem. There don't seem to, there are no augmented second intervals here. It all looks pretty good. So, is this okay? Well, of course you know, I wouldn't be putting it up if it was okay. So, the question really is, what's wrong here? Okay. What we find is in the outer voices, soprano and bass, that they leap in the same direction. They both leap and they leap into an octave. This is what we call a direct octave. Some of you have learned music theory before, tonal harmony before. You may have learned what's called, learned this under a different name, called hidden octave. Hidden octaves, direct octaves, I'll probably use these terms interchangeably. So, maybe know both of them. So the direct octave, here and we want to avoid direct octaves, we also want to avoid direct fifths. It's always octaves and fifths we have to, fifths we have to be careful of. Now, often when I teach this, students very quickly have confusion about what exactly a direct octave or a direct fifth is, so I want to be very clear. First of all. If this were to happen between an outer voice and an inner voice, the tenor, sorry, the tenor or the alto, that is fine. Avoiding direct octaves between all voices is impossible. We're only concerned about it with the outer voices. Two, both of these leap. If one of these were to step, let's say for instance, this isn't the case, but if this B flat were a chord tone in this chord and it moved by step to the C then we don't have direct octaves. If this B, the B flat was here, it moves by a step and this one leaped. We don't have direct octaves, or a direct octave. That's completely acceptable. It is only when both voices, both outer voices leap into an octave or a fifth. That you want to avoid. Okay, so we have a summary, then, of these additional voice leading rules. And actually, the first one isn't an additional voice leading rule, you know this one already. So we start off with something that's really review, more than anything else. No parallel fifths and octaves, you want to avoid these. We add in, no fifths or octaves by contrary motion. No hidden fifths or octaves, or that is to say, direct fifths or octaves between the outer voices. And the last two, avoid the augmented seconds as an interval, melodically. You will find this harmonically, but melodically you want to avoid it. And, avoid doubling the leading tone.