You are handy to the ancient Greeks. Not only did they give us democracy, but also the art of public speaking. Public speaking is not much practiced today except if you're a politician. But in ancient Greece, special amphitheaters and public squares were built for all sorts of debates. Thousands were flock to hear the orators expound the arguments. In those ancient times, listening to debates are a form of entertainment. Now one Greek philosopher by the name of Aristotle, made a curious observation after witnessing countless debates. Rational and logical arguments or what he calls logos, do not necessarily win the debate. Instead, an orator also needs to pepper his presentation with a mixture of pathos and ethos. By pathos Aristotle means the orator must be able to stir up emotion, and imagination, and by ethos Aristotle means the orator must be able to garner respect through character and credibility. Now of course things have become more complicated in the 2000 years scenes. In this lesson, we will introduce the idea of storytelling as a way of presenting your ideas, and look at how to structure your presentation so that is memorable. Modern technologies like PowerPoint, have made it easier for us to create presentations. We can quickly write down the points we want to say, and then simply present them. This ease however, has a downside. We tend to lose sight of how these points can be woven together into a coherent story, the presentation becomes more like a verbal report. There is a better way. Think of your presentation as a mix of facts and stories. So it's not as if your audience is watching a movie when you present, no hardly reading report. It's somewhere in between, your presentation toggles between facts, stories, and implications. The facts appeal to the listeners logic, while stories can arouse the imagination and emotion of the audience, while implications provide meaning. Now, you don't necessarily have to have a long story. Sometimes it's better to have short anecdotes sprinkled throughout your presentation. But the important thing is that stories must be relevant, and by that we mean they support the point you are making. Stories are therefore very powerful because they make the presentation interesting. They are easy for the audience to follow and can be used to share knowledge or values. We can also use metaphors and analogies to propel the story forward. If the story is well told, it can arouse emotions like humor, settlements, and even nostalgia. A good example of this, is during a scene in a TV series Mad Men. When Don Draper, the lead character, is pitching to win the codec carousel akon. His strategy is to tell a story. During the pitch he sees the codec carousel is not a spaceship, but rather a time machine that lets you travel back and forth to relieve wonderful memories, to take us to a place where we ache to go again. So by using the metaphor of a time machine, suddenly the carousel is no longer just a wheel, but a device you can use to evoke nostalgia. Now, how clever is that? Notice: facts alone cannot achieve this emotional response. Now, storytelling has a narrow special quality. It can transport the listener into another time and place into the future for instance. This is what's called a springboard story. Great orators can do this by painting a desired imagined future. This is tricky since nobody knows what the future holds. So the speaker has to do it in such a way that is not too specific but yet plausible enough to inspire action. Finally, storytelling can also take the listener on a metaphorical journey, so that a speaker can bring the audience along for a ride. For instance, the hero's journey is a common narrative arc where a person faces many difficulties, but through various means manages to succeed. There is an underlying hero overcome adversity narrative that sweeps through up the presentation. To pull this off, the audience must be able to relate to the story and see themselves as the hero in the narrative. A good example is Steve Jobs presentation at a graduation ceremony at Stanford University. In that speech, he told three heartwarming stories including the one about his fight with cancer. I can't help but tear up every time I listen to that speech. Another approach, the storytelling is to use a simple three part messages structure. Then think of ways to enliven the presentation. The three part structure should have the following qualities; the beginning should have a hook to real the audience in, the middle should be about problems solution to sustain attention, and the end should be a call to action to activate behavioral change. Work on the middle part first since this is the reason the audience comes to hear you speaking. If you adopt a problem solution formula, your message will be focused. Start by outlining the current problem, and if appropriate share personal stories of conflict and complication experience. Toggle between facts, anecdotes, and implications, but don't review the solution just yet. You want some suspense, let the audience feel a bit uncomfortable, then reveal the promised solution. Be concrete in your description, at the same time paint a compelling picture of the benefits that follow. Which can be for Odeon Mendez, the families, friends, and even mankind. Now, if the issue is controversial, you might want to address possible objections that might arise before settling on your final preferred solution. If the preferred solution is risky, then acknowledge to risk too and empathize with the sacrifice that may need to be taken. This middle part of the presentation should take up the bulk of the presentation, about 80 percent. Now, once the middle part of the presentation is complete, think of ways to enliven the whole presentation. For instance, at a start you can say something provocative or unexpected, give a shocking statistic or create tension by pointing to a gap between what is and what is possible. In the middle, you can use an evocative visual or create unforgettable moments. To break the monotony think about varying the style of delivery, use curiosity questions, alternating between facts, stories, and implications. Most important is to make it rewarding for the audience to listen. By rewarding, it could mean that the audience has learnt something new, gained in confidence, and all enjoyed the experience. Finally, the last part of the presentation should be a call to action. This is often rhetorical in nature and often inspiring, but you can include incentives to spur people into action.