Now let's spend a few minutes talking about challenges and opportunities. When we think about the future and the challenges that are gonna be before the industry. Urbanization, 70% of the population, moving into cities by 2050. So you think about the strain on cities today already. The incredible push around more and more people coming into cities. A population growing to 9 billion by 2040. 10 billion possibly by 2050. These numbers are staggering when we think about the infrastructure that's going to have to be in place to support it. And if we think about how the industry is going to have to change in advance, and become more innovative to meet these demands. I personally believe, that the industry is ripe for transformation and disruption. The industry has largely been the same for the last 50 to 100 years. And I think with the, and I'll talk a little bit about this, but the opportunities to start leveraging technology are going to change our industry significantly in the future. Technology has not yet made a significant impact on industry methods or performance. So, what do I mean by that? Well if you think about how things are done today, how projects get accomplished. If you think about what it takes to lay a mile of highway today, or what it takes to build a building. If you look at those methodologies, those techniques, it's largely the same today as it was 50 years ago. And this is actually borne out when you look at the labor productivity. So, non foreign business labor productivity has gone up on average of 153% over the course of the last 50 years. When we look at construction labor productivity, it's actually gone down 19%. So, think about that, you can see the diversion. The rest of the economy and other industries continue to become more efficient. In the engineering and construction industry, it has continued to become less efficient. So, that obviously has to change, particularly when we talk about the needs of the future. When we talk about the challenges around cities, or urbanization, the degradation of infrastructure, which I'll spend a minute talking about. We have to change the way the industry goes about engineering, architecting, and constructing projects. If we think about the gap in investment, 56 trillion investment required globally over the next decade. That's incredible gap to overcome when we think about the other needs of societies and where investments need to happen. How are we going to close that gap? Where are those investments going to come from? And as I said before, I don't believe we can do it by conducting our business and carrying out projects the way we've done them in the past. We need to learn from the past, use the best from the past, but also look ahead. Another element is that if we look at the developed economies around the world and the state of that infrastructure today. Much of it that has been built over the last 50 to 100 years is in very bad shape. So we have aging and underfunded infrastructure across the globe in developed economies. Let's spend another minute looking at the current state of infrastructure. This picture is an example of an aging city. And this is actually a US city, which gives a little insight into some of the challenges of the future. So every four years, the American Society of Civil Engineers evaluates the infrastructure of the US and gives it a report card grade A, B, C or D. And it's based on eight criteria. Capacity, condition, funding, future need, operations and maintenance, public safety, resilience, and innovation. The last one done in 2013 gave a score in the US of a D plus. And the estimated investment needed by 2020 was $3.6 trillion. So the richest nation in the world, one of the most advanced economies in the world, the biggest economy in the world, has these challenges before it, with respect to infrastructure. And as I said at the outset, the reason that's so significant is our infrastructure. Those elements provided by the backbone of our society, provided by the engineering construction industry, Has to provide those services under these conditions. This next slide talks about the gap in investment. So if we look at things like our highway system in the US is only 46% funded currently. Our water system's only 30% funded at this time. So when we think about the challenges of the future and what lies before us, again we're gonna have to look at this in a different way. This highlights the challenges we have, both with existing infrastructure, the infrastructure that needs to be built for the future, and then let's talk for a moment as well about the global challenges. So let's look at the global challenges. Again, not just looking at the developed world but the developing world. Today, 1 billion people lack access to clean water. 1.4 billion lack access to electricity. 2.6 billion don't have adequate sanitation. And 2.7 still rely on biomass for cooking. So, so much of the world today at a population of a little over 7 billion is already not being served by the infrastructure of today. So when we project that out to the world, and much of the growth of that world when we're talking about 9 or 10 billion people, and much of that growth in those developing nations, how are we going to provide the infrastructure? How is the engineering and construction industry going to move, change, pivot, to be able to provide the infrastructure not only to the developed world but to the developing world. You know, and we tend to focus as we say many times the luxury of dealing with first world problems. But when we think about this, it's not about the structures and the buildings. Remember that the job of the industry, the engineering and construction industry is about people, right. It's about us serving the next generation. Our kids and their kids and their kids. Now, let's just spend a moment in closing talking about the future of engineering and construction. Another one of my colleagues is gonna cover this topic in more detail in another module. But it's very important, I talked about a lot of the challenges of the industry. But I believe we're at a very, very special time. If we think about the impact that technology will have on this industry again. We've just started to scratch the surface on what technology can do to change the way that we envision the future, change the way that we design, build, operate, and maintain our infrastructure in the world. So if we think about technologies, like analytics, like machine learning, optimization, multidimensional modeling and how that's gonna change the way that we design the future. Immersive technologies, things that allow us to see the future in different ways. To create structures virtually, to be able to walk through those structures, to be able to see them, to see what's good and bad, to be able to envision things and see them in such a much more efficient way. And again we're just starting to scratch the surface on what the future looks like. When we think about technologies that can be applied, advanced manufacturing, nanotechnologies. When we think about things like 3D printing and what that is going to mean to the future of the industry and how that is gonna change it. And again if we think about the challenges on meeting the demands of the developed world, the developing world, 8, 9, 10 billion people, we have to do things in a very different way. And this is an opportunity for us to take advantage of technology and change the way that we envision the future and change the industry.