This next lecture is about reading local what are called flat files. Prime examples are text files, hyper delimited text files, comma delimited text files and so forth. If you've actually already taken the R programming class, you may be able to skip this lecture, because you've already seen how to load it into R. So again, we're gonna go back to the Baltimore fixed camera data. And so, I'm again going to download the data. I'm gonna check to see if the data directory exists. And if it doesn't, I'm gonna create it, then I'm going to download the data with download.file. So now the data has been downloaded from the website and is actually sitting on my computer, it's local data to my computer. So the first thing you might wanna use to load the data is with the read.table() function. And so read.table() is the most common function, because it's the most robust. It allows you the most flexibility in some ways in R. It does require a few more parameters than you would pass to some of the other functions and it can be a little bit slow. So there's actually faster ways if you need to scan through files to find specific elements and we might talk about those later. It reads the data into RAM, so it reads the data into memory. And so if you have a really, really big data setting caused problems unless you read it in chunks. Read.tables() is also probably not the best way to read large datasets in general into R. So the important parameters here are what file you wanna read, weather is has a header? What's the separation between elements, weather it has row names and how many rows do you wanna read? The related functions read.csv and read.csv2 will also be briefly discussed. So if we wanna read the cameraData, we could try just sending it to read.table() just like this. We say, cameraData is gonna be the variable we're going to assign and we're gonna use the read.table command and we're gonna read the file cameras.csv. So the problem that you'll get back immediately is an error. It says, line 1 did not have 13 elements and the reason why is because there's commas separating cameras.csv. But the default for read.table() is to look for a tab delimited file. So if you actually try to look at this variable, cameraData, it doesn't exist, because R wasn't able to read it in. So what we can do instead is read.table() with setting the sep command. So this is the separation, we're gonna set it equal to quotes comma. And so what that does is it says, look through the file and assume that all the different values will be separated by balance. We're also gonna tell it header = TRUE, because the variable names are included at the top of each column in the file. So if we do that and assign the results to cameraData variable and then use the head command, this will look at a top few rows of that file. And so for example, on the first row, now we see that data on the first Camera. It wraps around, because of the way that the slide looks here, but each row has now been read into one row of the cameraData variable. You can also use read.csv in the case that you have a csv file, it automatically sets sep equal to the quote comma and it automatically sets header = TRUE. And so, if you have a CSV file, which is one of the most common flat formats that you'll see for data, you can use the read.csv command. Some more important parameters that you can pass, for example, to read.table is you can tell it quotes. So for example, you can say, whether there are quoted values. If you say, quote = " ", like that. You get no quotes in the file, na.strings tell r what the character is that represents a missing value. So the most typical character that you'll see in our datasets in na, but that character might also be minus 1 or 999, 99 or something else. Nrows tells you how many rows in the file to read. So for example, if you only wanna read the first ten lines of the file, you can use nrows = 10 as one of the arguments to the read.table() function. Skip will also tell you how many lines to skip before you read. So for example, suppose you wanna read the 3rd through the 13th line, you would set skip equal to 2 and nrows = 10. So my experience suggest that the biggest common problem that I see in a lot of files is that you see one of these quotation marks placed in the data value somewhere. So when that happens, R gets confused, because it's not looking for those quotes. And so if you set quote=" ", this often resolves those issues and then you won't have to deal with them. So it's just a helpful tip, whenever you see sort of data sets that aren't getting read in or getting read in as very long vectors, setting this quote variable in that way can be one way to address it.