Hi and welcome back. There are few deep learning program frameworks that can help you be much more efficient in how you develop and use deep learning algorithms. One of these frameworks is TensorFlow. What I hope to do in this video is step through with you the basic structure of a TensorFlow program so that you know how you could use TensorFlow to implement such programs, implements neural networks yourself. Then after this video, I'll leave you to dive into some more of the details and gain practice programming with TensorFlow in this week's program exercise. This week's program exercise does require a law extra time. Please do plan or budget for a little bit more time to complete it. As a motivating problem, let's say that you have some cost function J that you want to minimize. For this example, I'm going to use this highly simple cost function, J of w equals w squared minus 10w plus 25. That's the cost function. You might notice that this function is actually w minus five squared. If you expand out this quadratic, you get the expression above. The value of w that minimizes this, is w equals five. But let's say we didn't know that, and you just have this function. Let us see how you can implement something in TensorFlow to minimize this. Because a very similar structure, a program can be used to train neural networks where you can have some complicated cost function J of wb depending on all the parameters of your neural network. Then similarly, you build a use TensorFlow to automatically try to find values of w and b that minimize this cost function, but let's start with the simpler example on the left. Here I am in Python in my Jupyter Notebook. In order to startup TensorFlow, you type import NumPy or NumPy as NP, import TensorFlow as TF. This is idiomatic. This is what pretty much everyone tags exactly to import TensorFlow as TF. Next thing you want to do is define the parameter W. Intensive though you're going to use tf.variable to signify that this is a variable initialize it to zero, and the type of the variable is a floating point number, dtype equals tf. float 32, says a TensorFlow floating-point number. Next, let's define the optimization algorithm you're going to use. In this case, the Adam optimization algorithm, optimizing equals tf.keras.optimizers.Adam. Let's set the learning rate to 0.1. Now we can define the cost function. Remember the cost function was w squared minus 10w plus 25. Certainly write that down. The cost is w squared minus 10w plus 25. The great thing about TensorFlow is you only have to implement forward prop, that is you only have to write the code to compute the value of the cost function. TensorFlow can figure out how to do the backprop or do the gradient computation. One way to do this is to use gradient tape. Let me show you the syntax with tf.GradientTape as tape, computes the causes follows. The intuition behind the name gradient tape is by an analogy to the old-school cassette tapes, where Gradient Tape will record the sequence of operations as you're computing the cost function in the forward prop step. Then when you play the tape backwards, in backwards order, it can revisit the order of operations in reverse order, and along the way, compute backprop and the gradients. Now let's define a training step function to loop over. We're going to define a single training step as this function. In order to carry out one iteration of training, you have to define what are the trainable variables. Trainable variables is just a list with only w. We are then going to compute the gradients with the tape cost trainable variables. Having done this, you can now use the optimizer to apply the gradients and the gradients are grads and trainable variables. The syntax we are going to use, is we're actually going to use the zip functions, built-in Python function to take the list of gradients, to take the lists are trainable variables and pair them up so that the gradients and zip the function just takes two lists and pairs up the corresponding elements. I'm going to type print w here just to print the initial value of w we've not actually run train_step yet. Hopefully I've no syntax errors. W is initially the value of 0, which is what we have initialized it to. Now let's run one step of our little learning algorithm and print the new value of w, and now it's increased a little bit from 0 to about 0.1. Now let's run 1000 iterations of our train_step. If I arrange 1000 train step print W, let's see what happens. Run pretty quickly. Now W is nearly five which we knew was the minimum of this cost function. Isn't that cool? We just specify the cost function. Didn't have to take derivatives and TensorFlow, figured out how to minimize this for us. I hope this gives you a sense of the broad structure of a TensorFlow program. As you do this week's program exercise and play more with TensorFlow code yourself, some of these functions that I just used here will become more familiar. Just a couple things to notice, w is the parameter you want to optimize. That's why we declared w as a variable. All we had to do was use a GradientTape to record the order of the sequence of operations needed to compute the cost function, and that was the only problem and TensorFlow could figure out automatically how to take derivatives with respect to the cost function. That's why in TensorFlow, you basically had to only implement the fore prop step, and it will figure out how to do the gradient computation. Now, there's one more feature of TensorFlow that I wanted to show you. In the example we went through so far, the cost function is a fixed function of the parameter or the variable w. But what are the function you want to minimize is a function of not just w, but also a function of your training step. Unless you have some training data x, and x or x, and y, and you're training a neural network with a cost function depends on your data, x or x and y, as well as the parameters w. How do you get that training data into a TensorFlow program? Let's go through another version of how to implement all this. I'm still going to define w as the variable. Also I'm going to add them optimizer, but now I'm going to define x as a list of numbers as array and I'm going to plug in 1 negative 10 and 25. This will be another float 32. These three numbers, 1 negative 10 and 25, will play the role of the coefficients of the cost function. You can think of x as being like data that controls the coefficients of this quadratic cost function. Let me now define the cost function which will minimize as same as before, except that now I'm going to write x of 0 times w plus x of 1 times w plus x2. This is the same cost function as the one above, except that the coefficients are now controlled by this little piece of data x that we have. Now this cost function computes exactly the same cost function as you had above, except that this little piece of data in the array x controls the coefficients of the quadratic cost function. Now, let me write print w this should do nothing because w is still 0, is just initial value. But if you then use the optimizer to take one step of the optimization algorithm, then let's print double again and see if that works. Great, now this has taken one step of Adam Optimization and so w is again roughly 0.1. This syntax, optimizer dot minimize cost function, and then then list of variables W, that is a simpler alternative piece of syntax, or that's the same thing as these lines up above with the gradients [inaudible] and apply gradients. Now that we have a single training set implementer, let's put the whole thing in a loop. Training, X, W optimizer, define the cost function within the scope of this function, and then for I in the range 1000, lets run a thousand iterations and then lets run W. Lets see what that does. There you go, and now W is nearly at the minimum set, roughly the value of five. Hopefully this gives you a sense of what TensorFlow can do, and the thing that makes it so powerful is, all you need to do is specify how to compute the cost function, and then it takes derivatives and it can apply an optimizer with pretty much just one or two lines of codes. Here's the code again, and in case some of these functions of variables still seem a little bit mysterious to you, they will become more familiar after you've practiced with it a couple of times by working through the programming exercise. What is this code really doing? Let's focus on this equation. The heart of the TensorFlow program is something to compute the cost, and then TensorFlow automatically figures out the derivatives and how to minimize the cost. What this line of code is doing is allowing TensorFlow to construct a computation graph. What a computation graph does is the following, it takes X (0) and it takes W, and W gets squared. There's W squared and then X (0) and W squared can multiply together to give X (0) times W squared and so one through multiple steps until eventually, this gets built up to compute the cost function. I guess the last step would have been adding in that last coefficient X (2). The nice thing about TensorFlow is that by implementing base the four a prop, through this computation graph, TensorFlow will automatically figure out all the necessary backward calculations. It'll automatically be able to figure out all the necessary backward steps needed to implement back-prop. Isn't that nice? That's why you don't need to explicitly implement back-prop, TensorFlow figures it out for you. This is one of the things that makes the programe frameworks help you become really efficient and there are also a lot of things you can change with just one line of codes. For example, if you don't want to use the Adam Optimizer and you want to use a different one, then just change this one line of code and you can quickly swap it out for a different optimization algorithm. All of the popular modern deep learning programming frameworks support things like these and it makes it much easier to develop even pretty complex neural networks. I hope that gave you a sense of the typical structure of a TensorFlow program. To recap material from this week, you saw how to systematically organize the hyperparameter search process. You also saw batch normalization and how you can use that to speed up your neural network training. We also chatted about deep learning and programming frameworks, and you learned about TensorFlow. I hope that you go on and try out and enjoy this week's programming exercise, which will help you to gain even greater familiarity with these ideas.