Poor Dr. Meyer, I can't believe he's actually dead. I know. I just talked to him like yesterday. Me too, I dropped by his lab to borrow an Al Quada enzyme. He was celebrating a new breakthrough on his wonder drug. Oh, I'm sure the vultures are already circling to get their hands on it. Hey Kate, do you think that was the motive? Well, it's hard to know, but I'm going to leave that to the detectives. Our job is to identify whose blood this is. To get to the bottom of this case, we're going to show you a few techniques scientists use routinely in the lab to analyze DNA. We're all set up to show you how PCR and gel electrophoresis are used in forensics. We'll have this case cracked in no time. The Police dusted for fingerprints, but we're after the DNA fingerprints left behind in this blood. You know it. The technique sure has come a long way in the last few years. We'll isolate DNA from the blood cells and then we'll copy or amplify specific regions of DNA that will help us to identify our suspect. The unique DNA fingerprints in the blood will lead us straight to the culprit. Then, it will be your turn to help uncover the murdered. And once we've showed you how to use DNA to solve this case, we're going to ask you to solve another murder case in our virtual laboratory. You can take the lead in a crime scene investigation simulation. But before we set you loose on your own case, you'll need to get some serious science under your belt. Let's get started. Welcome back to DNA decoded. DNA decoded. Hey Kate, check out my new toy. What is that? It's a protein. I bought it. I thought proteins came from DNA. We're coming to that. This DNA model was super helpful to explain the basic building blocks of DNA and how it's organized. Let's take a closer look at the double helix. We can see the four nuclear bases, A, T, C and G. And the phosphate and sugar molecules that make up the sides of the twisted ladder. It's really hard to believe that about two meters of DNA fits into the tiny nucleus of every cell. Okay. So, tell me about your new toy. Okay. Well, first of all, this comes from this. DNA is used to build proteins, but there's a bit more to it. What about RNA polymerase, mRNA, the ribosomes, tRNA, codons? Hold on Kate. That's what this entire week is for. We're going to explain how DNA gets the message across, get it? Messenger RNA. Didn't we put a pause on all science-related puns? Not that I remember. We're going to cover some fascinating topics this week, transcription, translation, and codon PCR. Joy, I can't wait to see what you've got for DNA replication. Oh, it's good. Can you guess what this is for? Central dogma. A dog seriously? Unfortunately, there will not be any dogs or puppies in the videos this week, but I'm going to talk a bit more about central dogma. Central dogma explains how information is transferred between DNA, RNA, and protein. Or to put it in another way, how we can go from instructions to the final product, gene to message, to function as it were. We just showed you the starting point, DNA, and the endpoint, protein. And this week, we'll get into the details of the steps in-between. Central dogma explains how the in-between helper's work. The information to make protein flows from DNA to another macromolecule called RNA. RNA is sort of like the cousin of DNA, more on that later. Central dogma was originally postulated by Francis Crick of Watson and Crick that is. This week you'll know everything you've ever wanted to about RNA and proteins. Kate went out.