Hello learners, welcome to this module on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) in detail. Let's start with the first topic on introduction to automation. At the end of this topic you will learn the losses in the distribution system, described the prevailing conditions, existing problems and remedial action in SCADA, explain the block diagram of automation. Let us look at the recap of topics discussed in the earlier weeks, we learned about generation, transmission, sub-transmission, MV substation. We have seen losses in the distribution system which includes technical losses, commercial losses, aggregate technical and commercial losses. Some of the prevailing conditions discussed are more manpower, dependency, prone to human error, inadequate infrastructure, continued increase in demand, poor demand forecasting. Let us now look at the existing problems, frequent outages, longer duration of outages, power theft, power loss, poor metering, poor revenue, aged infrastructure. Some of the remedial actions taken for the existing problems are introduction of AB cables, introduction of underground cables, introduction of automation in field equipment, how to improve system efficiency further, resolving the existing problems solution available automation, what is in trend, smart grid and smart metering. Shown here is the simple automation block diagram. The first step is from RMU to FRTU. The second step is OFC spec/functional/installation or termination. The third step is data culture. Let's go over the topics we have covered in the distribution what is survey, distribution substation, flow of power to the consumer, distribution through overhead line, distribution through underground cable. Introduction of a really bunched cables, various components involved in distribution, their function specifications and tests various losses of distribution system, importance of voltage regulation, power factor improvement, radio loop and network types of distribution. First step in automation, circuit breaker auto-recloser, sectionalizer and ring main units. Now we will discuss the present day limitations future requirement. Most of the tasks are performed by humans. Revenue of distribution system is less. Electromagnetic relay meters are used. Shift from analog system to a digital system is brought in limited implementation of automation. Outage time is more, which is to be reduced. Communication technology has improved a lot which needs to be adopted. Information technology has developed a lot. Operational technology must become stronger. Integration of information technology and operation technology is the need of the art. Standardized operation or process needs deployment of computers or processes. Let us summarize what we have learned. The various types of losses in the distribution system and the need for SCADA and its emergence.