[MUSIC] Congratulations, you have reached the end of our course, lesson planning with the ELL in mind. If you are feeling a little overwhelmed, we completely understand. You were introduced to a lot of new material and asked to think about many aspects of classroom application to better support your teaching of ELL students. Before you complete the final assessment, let's review some key concepts of the five modules that brough you to this stage. In the first module, you were introduced to some key theories of second language acquisition. The first theory was the silent period, which can be applied to ELL students new to your class or to an English speaking environment. This student might literally sit silently in your class as a means of processing information and language and gaining the confidence to produce the language. The silent period can last for a short time, or it can be delayed up to six months. It's best not to force the student to speak, but continue exposing him or her to the language, and continue to modify the expectation of his or her production of knowledge. The second theory covered was the input hypothesis, which suggests that it's best to provide input at a language level slightly higher than the student's language skill. Next we covered the interaction hypothesis, which drives much of our course in classroom application. This hypothesis advocates a generous amount of interaction in order for progress in language acquisition. ELL students should interact with the language and use the language as much as possible. Finally, you we're introduced to CLIL where language is taught and acquired through the teaching and learning of content. In other words, the content informs language instruction. These methodologies are key foundations for language acquisition in a content classroom. >> Module 1 also introduced you to BICS and CALP. Two specific languages required for different settings. BICS, or Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills, are language skills needed and used to communicate successfully in social settings. When a student has a mastery of BICS, they are able to successfully fulfill the language requirements for greetings, following directions, and interacting with classmates and others. Complete acquisition of BICS can take up to three years. CALP, or cognitive academic language proficiency. Refers to academic language that is needed to be successful in more academic settings to perform more cognitively demanding tasks such as comparing, drawing conclusions, and analyzing. Acquisition of CALP can take between five to seven years of education in English. These language skill sets can take longer to acquire for a student who has little or no history of formal education or literacy in his or her native language. >> Understanding BICS and CALP becomes important as you begin looking at the language demands of your content, and applying methods of support for your ELL students. The first step is understanding and analyzing the various types of vocabulary in your content. There are four different types of vocabulary. Content obligatory, which is imperative for content mastery, content compatible are words that complement your content but may be found or learned elsewhere. Collocations, or chunks of language, and high frequency words that are used in the lesson and may be applied to a wide variety of contexts. You were given some suggested methods for teaching these different types of vocabulary, including personal dictionaries, visuals, and mind maps. >> In addition to identifying vocabulary, you were introduced to the necessary task of identifying grammar functions and language functions relevant to your content. Both grammar and language functions should be taught within a context of a unit or a lesson. You should provide students with relevent examples of both grammatical structures and language functions, and help them to make use of both to complete assigned tasks. Module one was designed to help you in both the pre planning stages of your lesson planning. In other words, to help you with what you need to understand, identify, and gather prior to developing lessons with the ELL in mind. Module two continued to build on the pre planning necessary steps. >> In module two, the development of cognitive or thinking skills for our ELL students was discussed. Bloom's taxonomy and Webb's Depth of Knowledge chart were used to illustrate examples of cognitive demands required by specific content areas. In addition, module two introduced the need for identifying and explicitly teaching learning skills or teaching students how to learn. Learning skills should be taught and developed to align with the ways in which students are expected to learn at your school. These might not always mirror how they were taught to learn in their native language or country. Developing learning skills can help ELL students become autonomous learners and grow more confident in learning independently. Finally, module two provides a thorough explanation of the effective filter, and how students' acquisition of language can be negatively impacted by low self esteem and attitudes toward learning. Finally, module two provided a thorough explanation of the effective filter and how students' acquisition of language can be negatively impacted by anxiety, low self esteem, and their attitudes towards learning. In order to combat the high effective filter, you can create a low anxiety classroom environment for your students so they feel comfortable learning language as well as content. Planning with intent and understanding the process of language acquisition can help you to provide the safe and low anxiety environment. >> Module three began with the actual lesson planning process. Language genres, used throughout the curriculum and including persuasion, reports, and proposals, should be identified in your lesson. This will help you inform the grammar and language necessary to teach both at the word and sentence levels. Module three covered the important task of writing learning outcomes. In order to ensure measurable outcomes for language acquisition, learning outcomes are broken into two parts. Learning objectives and language objectives. You should align your content and language demands and tasks respectively. Of course, these outcomes then need to be aligned with whatever standards are being used in your school, district, or state. Standards should include both content driven standards and english proficiency standards. Module three concluded with examples of activities, which support ELL access to content. When using these activities in your lesson, you should clearly identify the language focus and the purpose driven by content and cognitive tasks. These activities should provide as much student talk time as possible, and work to develop both input and output skills. As always, the activities and tasks should work simultaneously to support mastery of content and progression of language acquisition. >> Modular four continued with the lesson plan process, and focused on selecting and adapting appropriate content materials for your ELL students. These materials include textbooks, handouts, activities and posters on classroom walls. In order to make informed material selection, it is important to ask if the language in these items is clear. Does it stimulate output for the students? Is the content at an appropriate language level, as well as age and grade level for the student? In the case that material is not at an appropriately language level, the materials must be adapted. These can be done at the word, sentence, and text level. Adaptations can also be applied by reducing unnecessary details, paraphrasing and re-ordering information to make text more comprehensible. Next, the module covered some examples of classroom application for adapted materials. This includes using visuals and writing and speaking frames. We discussed various kinds of activities that are ELL friendly and stressed the importance of the activities' focus on teaching content while providing opportunities to build language input and output skills. We concluded the module with a discussion on lesson delivery. When it comes to teaching ELL students, we have to pay close attention to our classroom language, questioning techniques and appropriate wait time. >> Finally, module five provided you with samples of three different lesson plans and the adaptations one could provide for ELL students. A social studies, language arts and math lesson were demonstrated. These were great guides for you to use as you begin planning with lessons with the ELL in mind. The next video we will provide you is the necessary information for the peer review assessment. You will have the opportunity to apply what you have learned in this course into your own teaching context. Good luck.