[MUSIC] Hi again. We'll try to talk in this session about emotions without brains, which is the relationship between emotions and brains. So, we can think even more curious, perspective. Look at like this, humans without brains, [COUGH] I've, still remember how the amazing of my, response when I first read that paper. Of from, [COUGH] sorry, writ, written by John Lorber in 1980 by Science Journal. That, is was, it was title Is Your Brain Really Necessary? And it, it was explained very, very curious thing that he found a University student who has an intelligence quotient of 126 and has obtained a first class honors degree in mathematics. But he had first slightly larger head size than other guys of his, of his class, but when he made the a brain scan of him, on him he found that, that, his brain was really smaller, and, and very smaller than the other brains. And he, he, in fact his, his, cranium was filled, mainly with cerebral spinal fluid. He has a higher cephalus brain but he was really smart. So he asked, to the scientific community, well, was true that there was a relationship between, the size of the brain, and of, of the, of the normal brain related to the intelligence on how it was possible that the human being wa, was able to work. The answer also was discovered that there was a guy called Jonathan Keleher that has been living without cerebellum. It's a structure of, of the brain that usually contains about half of the brain's neurons. He has problems to, to speak like all the other guys or even to work like all the other guys but he works specially and has a normal life. So, it's really that we are, like, most of times, we have, we have had, have had about, we think that we are. Really we can't think about the existence of emotions without the existence of brains. Yes we have seen improvisations about the, how it existed of protoemotions and even, we can see that and if, this is an hypothesis of an expert Carl Zajonc, in 1980, who argued that, affective judgements can be fairly independent of, and precede in time, the sorts of perceptual and cognitive operations commonly assume to be the basis of affective judgement. So, we can think on affective processes that out perform even the four the, the of the processing of the high level of, of conscious processes in our brains. Well, at the same time we can ask ourselves can exist feelings with our brains. Surely not because feelings requires from, of identification of our internal state. And this is a very complex process, that we feel. That it's not possible to obtain, without the brain. But, you can exist brain without emotions. Surely, because for example you can see here. We know there are people without emotions. We have also seen in previous sessions of our course they have survival and health problems and the same time they can find really big problems, when we try to maintain social relationships. And they also face two really, serious ethical and low conflicts. And, perhaps this emotional detachment, can be involunta, involuntary. And, and related to biological situations. For example in the case of psychopaths who are not able to, to understand some, some special kinds of emotional processes and, and then I am not able to, to perform a normal activity with other human beings. At least for, in a very specific scenarios. But there are also voluntary, detachment of the emotions, for example in war scenarios. I, I can recommend you a very, very nice book, written by Neitzel, and Welzer, called Soldiers German POWs on Fighting, Killing, and Dying, in which they explain, with a really deep analysis of, of Historically recordings of, of German prisoners about how they felt, on the way captured. And, and how they expressed their relationship with all the guys, with, with deaths, with killings, processes, and several, step historical, steps of the, of the world. And it's very interesting because we can see that, that we are able to use specific words, forms of, of language to minimize or to remark some emotional relationship with things, for example, with victims. Or we can decide that the big thing is not the subject, instead of the object, and then it is much easier to kill that, that person. And, we can even, feel that by cultural pressure that we have the right to make something to that person, or, or, or, or, perhaps, and this is very important, the context of violence. How, everybody is feeling that is normal to kill, so I have no moral, constraints, you know, to kill more people because I not at home, and perhaps, this explains where, why normal people make more normal feelings in, in war scenarios. I'm not saying that, we can't justify the actions. I cannot, we nee, I say that, we need to understand that what happened in really critical scenarios is the result of critical constraints and, and critical situations. And we are always dealing with a specific emotions that make possible some specific kind of reactions. So we can find several action, correlaction, correlation with, between brains and emotions. But at the same time, we can see that they, they are not following really deterministic processes. For example, very, very recently there was a, a, there was a scientist called James Fallon who, who was making a, an a study, there were scientific study on psychopaths, and he discovered that, that, that the brain patterns that were exhibited by psychopaths were very similar to, to his own brain patterns. And he discovered that his brain fitted the profile of a psychopath, but he's a doctor, he's not a psychopath. But perhaps somebody can think that it's the same, but it's not the same and he is not killing people just because he has a correlate into his brain structure that could explain some kind of action. You are not really deterministically programmed to make the ugly things, you can choose, according to your innovation, to your status, to your similar kind of variables. At the same time, emotional condition are some related and we can consider a specific scenarios where can exist with the normal mixed activity. And finally we can see that emotions can be modulated, reinforced, suppressed by several kind of, of activities. By chemical mechanisms, by cultural training, by several kind of, of possible options. Well thank you so much, hope to see you next session. Bye.