[MUSIC] Hi. Welcome to the last, session of this week, in which we will talk about the modulatory nasure, nature of emotions. So, when we are talking about emotions, the truth is that emotions are not just emotions. They always relate, always related to things. They are things that look to one point and tag that information with, with previous information and then try to produce an answer according to previous arrears. And in doing this process also can, can happen, more changes and more modulations. For example, this, the, the nature of, of the modulatory nature of, of, of an emotion can be exemplified by pain. It's truth, no pain, no gain? [LAUGH] I don't know, but the truth is that. Let me explain you sort of things about, pain. In first scenario, we are taking into account something like, the situation in which you cut yourself and the small cut activate the nociceptors of your body, and then you feel pain in your hand. You can really feel a, a strong pain, because you've, except for the situation, the rest of your body is fine, and, and, and working perfectly. In second scenario, you are really being injured by several cuts and, and, and hits in your body. So what happens is that your, your body is not processing at the same level, the previous cut, small cut. And, and actual cuts because if not, it, it will be hell. But it doesn't happen. Your body really understands that some things are more important than in others. And, and then suppress the information of, of stupid injuries and help you to really be focused in into bigger ones. In the third scenario, I will explain you that's, there is, there, there are people who really are really insensitive to pain because they are suffering from several kind of, of medical disorders. So what happens that they are insense, insensitive to pain that they don't, they don't perceive the pain for stimulus that is there are, are arriving, to the, to their brains. At the same times, they are not able to react properly to that burn, to that pain information. And surely, there will will be exposed to more damages than a normal person. Because if you put your hand into, into a really hot place, your nociceptors tell you that really, move your hand from this place because, it's dangerous and you can really lose your hand, because of the injuries. But if you don't, doesn't, have this feeling, you can not react to that information. Finally, a different scenario, the hyperalgesia. It's completely different. It's that, that, the situation in which you're sensitivity to pain it's highly, or exponentially increased, in comparison to other a normal normal person. And a really small action on your nerves or, or nociceptors create a really big or huge response. For example, in that, in that, situation, the touch of a small leaf, produces a very intense a pain into a human being. And it, it really happens, to some, beings. So, what is, pain, you can think? It's something real. It's something that our brain, learn to discriminate. So, in the last example of this session, I will try to explain you, an, or again an anthropological example made by Mark Zborowski in 1969, in which he, he went to a hospital in Boston and tried to understand whether people with different, cultural background. And he identified, Italian, Irish, and Jew and, and, and people, WASP, people born are in the United States as a first and second generation, if they really express differences related to the experience on, on pain. The, they was, the intensity, the quality, the duration, the sensation description, the expression of pain, the tolerance toward pains. The alt, attitude toward doctors when they are, are, are talking about, about what is happening, in your body. The care petition of, of the patient to the hospital caretakers. The family activities wa, the idea was all these things really affect how people feel pain and the re, the answer is yes, definitively. Because people really, have a cultural and personal way to deal with emotional information. And, therefore, we can understand that pain, it's not really an existent thing. It's not a real property of the body, but a modular and dynamic way of codifying information. At the same as all the other emotions, pain is really culturally mediated. And finally, pain is an experience that, that is adapted to specific possible actions. Well, thanks so much for your attention and hope to see you in, during the next week. Thank's so much.