[MUSIC] Hi. Welcome again. In this session, we'll try to talk about the Eastern debate on the nature of emotions. So, we'll talk about some alterations from India, from China and, and from the influence from China to Korea and to, to Japan. Insight Buddhism and Confucianism and even Taoism, but we have no time to talk about all these schools of thinking. Just about mainly, it is. So when we try to talk about the notion of, of emotions insight, for example in, in Indian philosophy that embraces very or we see that a very interesting thing. There is no word for emotion in Sanskrit, the, the classic language of these, of these thinkers. But they talk about vedana as a, can be translated or as a feeling or bhava also as feeling. But on the contrary, they talk about pleasure sukha and pain dukha as, as a very complimentary and deeply implemented into, into real life emotions. At the same time, they have a very interesting thing with, with cognition, with can be called vijnana or jnana because they see cognition as a bad process, because. They state one basic thing feeling leads to pain, it's the basic emotion that, that, is close to our living entities, and when I am conscious about me I am conscious about my, my, pain. At the same time this more important question about me. That the idea of me, for this cognitive traditions, is that the me is an illusion. It's nothing real. Me is a, is the, the result of a dream, of a dream. Of a, of a, of a god that it's dreaming something but not, it's not real. So for this tradition cogni, cognition and emotion are the illusions. Anyhow, we can see that there are several studies in which they try to understand more deeply and with more detail what are emotions. For example, if there is a text called Natyasastra wrote in the second century before that it, it is Arsenic or Manuel in which they try try, they try to understand they tried to understand similar kinds of emotions and how could be those emotions be more though in order to be applied to, to artistic practices. They created a very, very interesting typology of emotions making a list of, of 48 emotions. It's, it's incredible, very precise text. When we tried to go to another different area, and we go to China's cultural domain, we can see that Confucianism, Taoism, or Buddhism for example. Theories and philosophies there. And we can see again, the same point. Buddhism, for example, claims against cog, cognition, or even about the notion of selves. Because they say in the first noble truth of Buddhism is that all is pain, all is dukha, so we need to try to avoid pain. You can feel how differently he understood the, the meaning of life, for Buddhist or for a followers of Aristotle for, for, for, of Aristotle ethics in which, for western thinkers, that, the goal of life is to be happy, is the, of happiness. But on the contrary for, for eastern philosophies, most of time the notion is to avoid pain. So, at the same time that, that they justified the existential of pain, as a first Nobel Truth, they, they talk about an different emotion. About the empathy. It's very important for, for Buddhist, practitioners and followers the notion of, of universal compassion. Then, then the existence of the divine nature everywhere, And the necessity of being doubtful in this divine spirit everywhere. They also listed several possible feelings like pleasant, painful, neutral or happy mood or unhappy mood. We can, you can see here but anyhow, what is more important is that this kind of [INAUDIBLE] empathy toward nature and the, and the belief into the spirit. Nature of, of the divine spirit almost all entities explains things like this. You can see here, here this book, The Buddha in the Robot, are written by a very important engineer, Japanese engineer called Masahiro Mori. He all, also created the notion of Uncanny Valley, very useful for human robot interaction studies in which he defended, the, the idea of, there is, divine spirit inside the robots. And so we need to be close to robots in the same way that we are close to the rest of, of natural entities of human beings, of animals, even of, of the nature. When we go to understand Chinese Confucianism, we found a very specific concept calling qing, that can be translated as emotion or feeling. And it can be understood or seen as a product of environment, environ, environmental circumstances that affect the, the XING, innate human nature. So the notion is how to be able to control this, this emotion in order to cultivate our humanity. And the, the, that it's understood with central concept for Confucianism of. At the same time there were several authors to try, to talk about how emotions could be employed. To improve human beings or to improve human societies, because the man focus of this philosophy is to understand how human beings can be life in a, in a socially way. It's the ethical systems in Eastern are more social than individualistic. And we can find this when we look at the King idea in which they try to explain how we could use the emotional flavors. I know that to implement more values into, into societies. So, and just concluding, we can see that, there is also, also an Eastern interest on emotions but they also seen them as, as a negative. If we consider them as as an isolate feeling, but at the same time they can say that, they can say and understand that. They can be useful for the design and accept, accept, acceptance of moral values. Finally, they consider from a very cultural lead and view that the emotion that is dominant among humans is pain. It, it's it's the starting point, very important to understand, in order to understand how these philosophies tried to testify the meaning of life and the social meaning of, of achieving that goal. That can be to be good humans and not be really happy are very different things. Well, thank you so much again. I hope to see you into the next session.