[MUSIC] Hi, welcome to the fourth session of this, of this week., We'll talk about the moral control of the emotional mind. Let me explain you something that happened in Paris in the 7th of January of 1938. That day Samuel Beckett, who lived in Paris since 1937, was walking on the street, with some friends when he was attacked with a knife. He was really, heavy injured, he was really close to death. And he was impressed that he visit his assailant to jail, and, and he demanded to know why he had attacked him. And, he was real astonished when he was received, received the reply. The reply was [FOREIGN] I didn't know why. So he was so impressed that for nothing he could be nothing at that point. For no reason, he could be dead. So he thought really and very intensively about the absurdity of life, because this is the pattern of our brains. We are emotional brains, and we try to find emotional meanings when we look to the world. For example, the necessity of order, to be under control, to understand things. It can easily be understood, when we think on how inconceivably we are shocked by, for example, natural disasters. Tsunami's, earthquakes, unexpected death and illnesses. Or some very close to us, and we think whoa, but he was very young. But he really was healthy, or he was, I don't know, there are actually plenty of reasons. Or for example when, an unexpected accident or, or some really severe injury can, can effect us, or to somebody that we love. For example, during the Lisbon earthquake of first November in, of 1755 all that earthquake almost destroyed the city of Lisbon, it's estimated that between 60 thousand and 100 thousand of citizens died those days. It was a huge amount of people and a high percentage of the citizens of, of Lisbon. Then there were the, it produced very intense debates about the, the, the God's will. Why God, should be interested on killing so many people, and what, can we do in order to prevent this? And are we guilty, about that, the, the causes of this process? It, it even produced a very, very, nice, book of Voltaire called candy. In which he argued against Leibniz, and the notion that this world was the better world that God was able to, to create. And Voltaire was really funny. Writing, against this, process. But, anyhow, we need to understand why things happen. This is the reason of the existence of means of recourse. We are looking about to finding a comfortable, comfortable sphere. Even when we talk about very smart brains, and, and the greatest mind of the ancient philosophy, all them were horrified with the non-sense. For example, the, the classic horror vacui, the fear of emptiness, of, of ancient Greeks philosophers, it explains, the same time. Why greek mathematicians were not able to think of the existence of zero. Because for they it was impossible to think about the necessity of, of the existence of one number. That was not a real number. That number designated nothing at all for they, it was non, non very normal. So consequently they had no other choice to work on that perspective, it was a pity because zero is very important for mathematical purposes. At the same time, when we start to understand the emergence of, of the cosmos. We are faced to the same problem. How emerge the world or the cosmos? How life, emerge? Why is the, is the reason? It's not, we do not only need to understand that casual explanation. But we also need a semantic meaning. Which is the reason that explains all this. Which is the plan for me that it requires a specific response of my own. For example, you can remember Einstein talking about the situation in which God was not able to play dice with the universe. Or think, for example, when the great soldier Jacques Moned ruled that bodies change with necessity. In which he, explained how life could emerge by chance. It's a question, a concept that it's very difficult for several for a population of human beings, that everything could be just exist by chance with no reason at all, and no plan, and no reward, and no punishment, and nothing at all, it's just pure existence. Even from a cultural and intercultural perspective. Illness has been understood across several cultures. Of present and previous and ancient cultures as the result of a bad action, in which I'm not healthy because I have been doing something like it's not good, but it's not physic, that's physiological good but also morally good. So, if you think carefully a, across the history of medicine, you, you, bae, oftenly the way of, of healing, people is a combination of medicines and rituals that make possible that people really, feel better. Because they are, if they are ill is because of their moral, attitude. Even when we have started to understand the brain architecture, we have seen that the emotional brain is, is linked to the brain functioning and the brain function, functioning explains some social activities. For example, when we look at brain injuries like those suffered by Phineas Gage. We can see that a brain injury can use moral behavior. Or for example, when we think on psychopaths who are not able to establish empathetic relationship with other, with, other guys, this explains that they are able to produce pain without fear. Nothing at all, just because they are not able to understand that the other ones are feeling pain or because they are not able to understand that the, that external pain into their own emotional system. Or for example after one stroke people who have suffered these problem they also can be affected. Their emotional behavior, and it can, it can also affect their moral behavior. Even after a drug consumption, that includes alcohol during weekends, just on it, the, the emotional, respond can be really affected by this. For example, the, the Dimethyltryptamine, the DMT, the, called also God drug. It's incredible because, most of people who has been exposed just one time to this drug, these express the same feeling. They have been in contact with God, although they have felt really, very, very strong peaceful feeling after this consumption, they have changed drastically their life, all of them. Just one time. For for example, the cannibal drug cases in which people who has been taking this drug, acts very very aggressively. That is because the brain is processing some kind of information and then, the body, responds. Is automatically orientated toward that kind of behaviors. So, finishing [COUGH] the ideas of this session we can conclude that emotional brains perform emotional actions that at the same time emotional actions. And emotional spheres affect the cognitive processes. At the same time, cognitive processes satisfy always bodily and emotional necessities. And among them kind of necessities, control and understanding are really basic, at least for human beings with, with symbolic skills. At the same time, we can also take into account that brain perturbation, or changes, create new emotional scenarios. But, anyhow, and in any case, human scenarios are always emotional. We are always emotional, it's impossible to create a difference between emotion and reason into human domains, into no, normal human domains. So thanks so much for being here, and I hope to see you into the next session. Thank you so much. Bye.