[MUSIC] Welcome back to the course environmental management and ethics. My name is Laud Klausen and I will take you through this presentation. But before we get started, I would like to remind you that we're now done with part one and we're moving into part two where we'll take up these decision-support tools you'll be using in the course. So, this video will take you through the DPSIR framework. But before we really get started, I would like to present you to the learning objectives. First of all, after watching this video, you should be able to account for the ethical foundation of the DPSIR-model. And of course, we would like you to understand each of the constituent elements of the model. And lastly, of course, be able to apply it for any given ethical dilemma you might meet out there. So, the DPSIR framework. It's a decision-support tool by the European Environmental Agency and it's simply consist of five elements. The first one is the driving forces, then we have pressures, the state, the impacts. And lastly, the responses we might say. This set up in this causal relationship, but there's more to that. We have to remember that they are all connected. So, we're really have to also describes these arrows. I'll get back to that. But before we get to that part, I would like you to take you through some history first. So, the Stress-Response framework was kind of the origin of the DPSIR. It was produced by Statistics Canada, which were looking for some kind of tool to evaluate landscape changes. So, they picked up the ideas of Aldo Leopold. And now, I really do hope that you remember this guy. Aldo Leopold, the father of the Land Ethics. So, he was the guy who said that the boundaries of the community should be enlarged to include the land. He also said that we have to change from conquerors of the land to mere citizens of it. And lastly and very important, he stated that a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends, otherwise. So Statistic Canada depict of these ideas about Leopold and then they wanted to create a tool which could kind of integrate social science, and natural science in one to actually describe these landscape changes. And so, they did Stress-Response framework. That was later picked up by [COUGH] the economic, cooperation and development. The organization of the cooperation developments of that, which were looking for environmental performance indicators. So, what they did was really that they took the SR framework and then they rephrased the responses. Meaning, societal responses only. Further, they added the P. What we call the pressures, but they defined it as all releases or abstractions by human activities of substances, radiation and other physical disturbances and species in or from the environment, then they also took the state limited to meet only concentrations of substances and distribution of species. So that was OECD, which picked up the SR framework and added the pressures. The PSR framework was then again, picked up by the European Environmental Agency which needed to provide sound, independent information on the environment. The EEA, they needed tool which were efficient to actually provide a lot of information, a lot of knowledge to these very busy policy makers. So they picked up the peace offering mode and added the driving forces, and pressure, and the impacts which of course gives us the full DPSIR which we teach here today. So the DPSIR model now we have it, but how do we really define each these elements? That's where we are heading now. So now, I will take you through each of the elements and give a definition and I really want to highlight how important these definitions are especially when you are applying it and your ethical dilemma. The first one is the driving forces. So, the driving forces are needs and we have three types of needs. First of all, we have the primary needs, which deals with everything which we really need in order to survive. We also call them the individual needs. So this is like water, food, shelter, everything we need to survive. Then we have the secondary needs, which are more related to luxury stuff. So now we're talking mobility, entertainment and the like, culture. Lastly, we have the macroeconomic needs which are more related to production and consumption. What's important is that driving forces are needs, then we move on to the pressures, the P. The pressures results of meeting those needs we had in the first place. Again, we had three types. We have first one, which deals with excessive use of environmental resources. We have the second one, which more relates to changes in land use. And lastly, we have emissions to air, water and soil. So basically, pollution. What's important to remember here is simply that the pressures, they are results of meeting the needs. Then we have to state. The state is more snapshot of the present state of the environment and of human health, and well-being. So, it's about describing the quality of the various environmental compartment. So it could be air, water and soil and so on. And of course, don't forget the human health and well-being. So, snapshot. Describe it. How is it at the moment, then we have the impacts. The undesired impacts. Impacts are defined as changes in the state as a result of meeting a need. So, what's really important is changes. These are changes which can be physical, chemical, biological, whatever. It doesn't matter. They are basically just changes in the state as a result of meeting a need. You can see that's what will happen if we take no action and we're really have to be aware that we are not confusing these with the pressure that's often what we see. So, keep the definitions in mind. Lastly, we have responses. These responses can be responses. I take. You take. Society take, whatever. These are simply just actions. Actions we can take. And with this, we're gone through each of the elements. But as started out saying is that's not sufficient. What we were really have to remember is to realize how they are connected. For instance, the driving forces are very often connected in some economical way to the pressures. And we'll also have to realize that by implementing the responses, the pressures, they are reduced and the state is improved simply by minimizing the impacts. So, it's about describing the whole cause of chain and all the arrows in this figure. Very important. The DPSIR-model has been criticized. It has been criticized for having no causal relationship between each of the arms that it over simplificates and that it tends to be biased. Further, it offers limited guidance on how to deal with multiple stakeholder attitudes. So no framework is perfect, but it's all about discussing these issues. So, please consider it when you're applying your DPSIR-model. With this, I just want to say, thank you for watching and I hope you will enjoy applying the DPSIR-model yourself.