Moving on to the next step in the problem solving methodology. The second step in the methodology, defining the magnitude of the problem. And as U.S. Republican Senator Olympia Snowe from Maine, has been recently quoted as saying, "First of all we have to reach a consensus on the level of urgency and the magnitude of the problem, before we develop a long-term solution." Senator Snowe is quite right. The magnitude of the problem is essential for understanding how we solve this problem. You might have realized that we have already looked at data that measures the magnitude of the problem of infant mortality in Baltimore City. The data that we've seen in some of the previous slides we're measuring the magnitude of the problem, and we were using these data to draft and revise our problem definition. So it makes sense that this step is a part of a circular loop at the top of this figure depicting the steps in the problem solving methodology. So after reviewing data about the magnitude of the problem, you may find yourself revising and tweaking your problem statement. So you may be saying to yourself, "Well, aren't we done with this second step of measuring the magnitude? We've already looked at the infant mortality rates over time, and within specific geographical regions, important racial subpopulation." But the epidemiologist inside of you should be saying, "Never." Hopefully there's always more data to look at, to measure the magnitude and describe the magnitude of the problem. So let's think about other ways we can measure the magnitude of the problem. We can look at the absolute number of infants that died in Baltimore City. That number was 128 deaths amongst infants in 2009. Sometimes an absolute number provides a different perspective on the magnitude of the problem, as compared with something like a rate which was 13.5 Deaths per 1000 live births. The actual number helps us to think about the individual infants that unfortunately died. It conjures up a different perspective. We can also interpret these estimates in different ways, such as stating that more than 10 babies per month died on average. There are also data that showed Baltimore was ranked fourth highest for infant mortality among other major U.S. cities. And we can begin to break down the magnitude into subpopulations most affected by describing disparities. For example, we could say that 66% of births in Baltimore are to African-American mothers, and these infants have an infant mortality rate of 18.5 per 1000 live births, which is almost six times higher than white infants. Finally, we could point out that the infant mortality rate has not improved over the past decade. All of these statistics are measuring the magnitude of the problem, but they are doing it in slightly different ways. Combined, these statistics help the audience understand that infant mortality in Baltimore City is a heavy burden, particularly among African-Americans, and this burden has existed for quite a while. In the next video, we'll draw a picture to better understand this important public health problem. This picture, we will call a conceptual framework..