From an academic context, the one thing I found very interesting was, Justin Hart's review in the American Journal of History. And, and the reason I focused on that was implicitly, at least, a, a stepping back from the film. And how might they be used as a teaching tool, which I thought was interesting. Now one of the things that Hart picks up on, is a theme in Flags of our Fathers in particularly, but deals with the, reluctance to continue the war. And, and Hart challenges that, so what Come 1945 the American public doesn't appear to be waning in its support for warfare in quite the way that it's portrayed in the film. When I discussed about that, discussed the, the, discussed this broad point yesterday, I brought in some of the things from a, a different dimension, some of my other lecturing. With regards to the decision to drop the atomic bomb and also that potential number of U.S. casualties. So Hart is to in a, in a very constructive way considering some of the, the historical narratives that go through the film. And of course there is a, a more there are a number of books now including The Ghosts of Iwo Jima. Which are actually looking at the stories in, in in the American psyche and American cultural history, as myths. And say well, you know, what was the American objectives of taking this film? And, and how are these men used after the event to promote bombs? Is, is this really the way you want to treat servicemen, etc., etc. So, I think from the way that Hart puts this is very much, can we see where these films tell a consistent story that he particularly recognizes, within the literature. And, there has to be a, a degree of compromise, I think, if we are looking at two four hour movies, what can you tell. the second thing is that the reflection of Iwo Jima into what will happen in more, more, more generally. the point that was raised by a number of people including, I think it's >> Ed-, Edward, Dries review in the Journal of Military History is how you actually freshen up where you retell a story. >> Mm. >> which is so, well known, so to speak, in the cultural minds of the Americans. What I found interesting about Letters of Iwo Jima particularly. Was, that, having cast. Either Japanese-Americans, Japanese actors working in America or in some cases, Japanese actors who were well known at home. Some not so well known at home in Japan. The comment that came back in preparation was this is a period of our history we know very much about. And I'm going to think back slightly anecdotally about my time going out and doing some work in South Korea and Seoul, etc. And being aware at comments and criticisms from both China and South Korea about the official high school text books. >> In Japan. Covering the second World War period. >> Mm. >> So this will come to a point we're going to deal with later about national histories. About what is told, what is not told. We can go back quite a way on that, that point, to Bertolucci's The Last Emperor, another Oscar winning movie, but comes right to the end, or towards the end. When, it is clear what was happening, in terms of, quotes, war crimes, unquotes. During the war between China and Japan. Experimentation, a whole range of things which. We know more familiar, we know more familiarly in the west in the German context and less so in the Japanese context. So the telling of history, this is a telling of history that many in Japan many of our generation >> Wouldn't necessarily know so well. And I think that, that's an important i-, issue about the letters of Iwo Jima. not only is it a companion piece, not as a reflective piece. But actually for some in different nations. It's telling a story they weren't so well aware of. >> Yeah, it, it's, I mean, you go back, and. History is littered with, various people putting their interpretations about into educational textbooks. >> Yeah. Right, and I, and I think at this point you, you said, well, you know, history's written by the winners of, to, to a degree That's cliched and to a degree it's absolutely correct. but here is a case that the winners are taking, the, the quote: "winners" are taking a perspective in saying, "What were the motivations of the men who defended the island?" And that's something I'd, I'd just like to reflect back on after a quick break.