In the next few videos, we will examine the various elements and kinds of typeface, and how they interact. We will contrast sans serif, and serif fonts, as well as print fonts and web fonts. Throughout this module, we will also look at ways to combine font pairings, and formulate hierarchy templates for the use of texts and specific design projects. Topography is an art. More specifically, typography is the art or procedure of arranging type or processing data and printing from it. As you can see from this diagram, they are many design factors and artistic characteristics that make up topography. But nowadays, with the digital designs of documents, you often hear the terms topography, typeface, and font used rather interchangeably. Traditionally, typography is the visual component of the written word, visually rendered in different ways. It is an art of art form concerned with making and arranging type and legible and readable formats, where as typeface is a particular design of type, and font is a typeface in a particular size and weight. Individual typefaces are usually identified by a family name such as Times, Helvetica or Arial, and some additional terms indicating style, weight, and width, are mainly used to denote kinds of fonts. In short, a typeface usually encompasses many kinds of fonts such as italics, thin, or bold. But, each of these typefaces in the fonts are categorized into two specific categories. The main two kinds of typefaces are Serif and Sans Serifs. Serifs are the small finishing strokes flourishes on the end of a character. Serif actually means friend. I mean, feat in French or line in Dutch. Sans serif fonts do not have these small flourishing stuffs at the bottom of the letters. The word San in French means without. So therefore it means without feet or flourishes. Some examples of serif fonts include Times, Century, Garamond, and Baskerville, all of which have those little flourishes on the letters. Some examples of Sans Serif fonts include Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Century Gothic, which are without those little strokes at the ends of the letters. This is Serif font called times. This is a Sans serif font called Calibri. Notice how the invisible baseline is most of the serifs or lack of tend to show up. The lowercase a is usually a good starting place to look for differences between Serif and sans serif fonts. Capital letters such as T are another way to look for the differences because the serifs will or will not show up at the top of the letter, or at the bottom of the letter, that's on the baseline. Also, take a look at the difference between these lowercase fs in the two different fonts, and how the ascenders differ with the feet, or extra decorative flourishes at the top of the serif font which is times versus the sans serif font, and the lower sentence which is Calibri, which is without those flourishes. Here we have serif fonts Times, Garamond, and Baskerville. Notice the decorative fonts in the capital T. Even within these serif fonts, the flourishes will differ depending on the type face. Then, if we compare the word 'in' in all of these faces, you can see even the dot in the letter I differs, and weight and overall look. Next, we have Sans Serif fonts Arial, Helvetica and Calibri. Notice how the capital letter T, there is a lack of serif or flourish on any of these typefaces, as well as the weight of the main stem and topped strokes tend to defer or tend to be the same weight dependent on the font. Then, if we compare the word 'is', you can see even the dot in that I and all the different i's differs in weight, and the S also differs in overall look and even the curves. A third kind of font is called decorative. These typefaces are fancy fonts that should be used sparingly, and things such as headlines or other more graphic parts of a piece. Dingbats or Wingdings, or even some emojis are also considered decorative fonts. Again, these stocks should be used sparingly because can you imagine reading a huge block of text or a book and any of these spots, but they would serve fine as a header or some other decorative element. An argument on which kind of font is better has been raging for decades within the typographic community on what seems to be a very insignificant issue. Do serif fonts contribute to the legibility of typeface, and by definition, a san serif typeface is less legible? Today, no one has managed to scientifically prove a conclusive answer to these issues, but we can look at the difference between legibility and readability. Legibility is concerned with how well you can see letters. Even the very fine design details of the tight phase. In an operational context, this usually means the ability to recognize individual letters or words, whereas readability concerns the optimum arrangement and layout of whole bodies of texts, that make it easier to read. Be it serif for san serif fonts, either can be legible or not legible, and either can be readable or not readable. So legibility refers to the distinguishability of each character in the typeface. How easily can the font type be perceived? Whereas readability refers to the presentation of the entire texts, how easily can the reader navigate through words and lines? However, it might not just be the font choice itself that makes something more or less legible or readable. Notice all the different characteristics within this graphic. There's things such as point size which is determined by X-height, line spacing, kerning, tracking, the different ascenders or descenders, or even how the baseline is handled with serif but not the serif. That have an effect on the overall design of a project. So as we covered in other lessons, there are many factors that make typographical choice critical to design. Serif fonts tend to be more readable because they have those feet anchor to the imaginary baseline, but sans serif fonts can be read or can't still be readable because they tend to be cleaner and leaner, and to some people are therefore more legible. Then, there are decorative fonts. That as we said should be used sparingly, but can also be a way to tell the design story of a project. Be it serif, or sans serif or even decorative fonts. Good typography has one main aim. To gain and retain attention. According to Steve Jobs, design is not just what it looks like and feels like, design is how it works. At typography to that mix, and it becomes the visual component of your written message, adding to the look, and feel helping to make the piece work.