As we've seen, our modern conception, depression came to be understood as a distinct psychological condition in the early 20th century. Though, experts definitely differed in attributing depressions causes easier to bodily states or to personal and social experiences. The different theories of depressions origin reflect the heterogeneous atmosphere psychiatry at the time. Not surprisingly then experts introduced both somatic and psychotherapeutic treatments for individuals who were suffering with depressive thoughts. Today, we will survey the 20th century treatments for depression, and give attention to the two treatments that rose to dominance by the end of the synth bass century, therapy and drugs. During the early part of the 20th century, physicians use many of the treatments that were being prescribed for neurasthenia, rescuers, water therapies and available drugs. Among the medications prescribed were belladonna, opium, cannabis, phenobarbital, Sodium Amytal and cocaine. The latter being produced by a pharmaceutical agents, the Parke-Davis Company. For the most part, experts at the time used what was available. Often drugs that were being marketed for medical ailments, like this tonic. The history of these early pharmaceutical treatments is not well-known, though the experimental attitude and hope were plentiful. One example of this hope is the use of amphetamines, sometimes, claimed as history's first true antidepressant. Synthesized in 1887, the drug initially had no particular use. By the 1920s, after experimenting with its use for allergies alongside anesthesia and nasal congestion, a physician researcher tried it on himself and notice the feelings of well-being it produced. Amphetamines bit conceptually with the view that sadness is a depletion of energy. Amphetamines were soon prescribed for depressive states and thus established a market for mood modifying drugs, becoming widely prescribed and promoted through advertisements. Only in the 1960s did amphetamine gain reputation as an overused addictive drug, and eventually declared a controlled substance. By that time, however, the pharmaceutical industry was producing a host of new drugs for the mind. The 1950s began an explosion and use of new drugs for treating psychiatric conditions, including depression. The explosion was fueled not simply by pharmaceutical innovations, but also by the commercialization of medications, psychiatry ambitions as a medical science and people's eager embrace of chemical cures for personal distress. Newly introduced tranquilizers lead the way in a happiness pill parade, soon followed an array of antidepressants. With them came psychiatry's keener attention to the perils of depression and the pharmaceutical industries really in a gospel of depression, as it is said by story and David Hertzberg. The high point of this parade was appearance of a new class of antidepressants, SSRIs, of which Prozac, released in 1987, became the best-known. Data indicate that between the period 1988 and 1994 and 2005 and 2006, Americans use of antidepressants increased 400 percent. Current estimates are between 2015 and 2018, 13 percent of adult Americans used antidepressants within the last 15 days. One-quarter of them have been using antidepressants for 10 years or longer. Use by children and adolescents has increased sharply as well. This chemical revolution with it's embraced by the public, has received much critical scrutiny. As an example, your assigned reading by David Healy examines the profit driven campaigns to market these drugs, questioned about the drugs actual efficacy and crucial concerns about how the market might be driving mental distress and inducing people to adopt bio Babble, a growing tendency to attribute their problems to brain function. This tendency also is sometimes described as the new brain hood or neurochemical cell foot. Alongside the emergence of pharmaceuticals also emerged a variety of talk therapies for treating depression. First and formed by Freud psychoanalysis, although not always abiding by his theories, early 20th century experts developed various psychodynamic treatments. These successors to Freud psychoanalysis, alternatively posited that depression is anger, that the individual turns on herself, a major loss or parental inadequacies. Psychoanalysis aim to bring the patient to awareness of these disruptive unconscious forces. Other psychotherapeutic techniques were developed throughout the latter half of the 20th century. The large number of techniques provided individuals with a choice of therapy, though they were not always aware or knowledgeable of the choices they had. Some examples of the therapies. First, psychiatrist Myrna Weissman and Gerald Klerman's research indicated that depressed patients had experienced interpersonal disruptions or dysfunctional relationships and they then developed a therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy. Clinical psychologists, Carl Rogers developed client-centered psychotherapy, focusing on a client's specific needs. Client-centered therapy aimed for self-actualizing for the client to realize their full human potential. These and other therapies for depression traveled far from Freud's notion of unconscious drives. What has become the most commonly used talking cure, cognitive behavior therapy, better known today as CBT, both borrowed from and stepped well beyond the techniques of psychoanalysis. The trained in psychoanalysis, CBT is creator psychiatrist Aaron Beck came to understand depression as resulting from an individual's poor reasoning and their incorrect assumptions about themselves in the world. CBT introduced in the early 1970s, it falls first bringing the patient to focus on their faulty cognitions and then providing them with new healthier behaviors and patterns of thinking. As CEDAW skip serves, Freud believed that people inevitably live with internal conflicts, whereas, and I quote, "CBT had a sunnier outlook. Correct thinking will lead to happier feeling." These two dominant treatment modalities, drugs and therapy, can be understood to be committed to different explanations of the cause of depression for the most part, one targets the body, the physical, and the other targets the mental experiences, the psychological. This apparent difference had led to some people calling psychiatry of two minds. You'd ask the assigned reading by CEDEW reminds us depression is a thing. He writes, "The evidence that depression has both biological and psychological dimensions is so vast it is beyond questioning. For all the enigmas that surround the element, one proven thing is that it is not entirely mental or physical. The only thing strange about this is how people struggled to see it." Our next class, we'll consider people's lived experiences with this thing. Attending closely to how this experience might be influenced by popular knowledge about depression, people's yearnings for mental well-being and vertice spins for drug treatments.