[SOUND] Pseudo-class selectors address targeting only the structures that can be targeted by simple combinations of regular selectors, or targeting the ability to style based on user interaction with the page. For example, we would want the styling of an element to change if the user hovers or moves their mouse over that element. The way you specify pseudo-class selector, is by specifying some selector that we all ready know about with a colon and a predefined pseudo-class name. Now, there are many pseudo-class selectors that exist. In this lecture we're going to cover five of them. The first four link, visited, hover, and active are pretty basic and is used very, very often. The last pseudo-class will cover nth-child is a fairly powerful pseudo-class and can get pretty complicated, but its basic uses are fairly straight forward as we will see. So let's jump in straight into the code and see these selectors work. Okay, so in Sublime Text I'm looking at the file called pseudo selectors before that HTML that is located in the examples lecture 15 folder. Let me show you what this HTML page looks like in the browser. So this page has a header, and in the header we have an unordered list which has a bunch of links. As you can see it's showing up as a regular list with bulleted points. Followed by a section which has a whole bunch of DIVs and each one is named DIV 1, DIV 2, DIV 3, all the way to DIV 20. And the first thing I'd like to do is I'd like to style this unordered list as a menu. It's a pretty common practice to take an unordered list and style it as a menu. So let's go ahead and take this unordered list and style it as a bunch of menu buttons. The first thing we want to do is target these list items. So the way we're going to do this is by using our descendant selector by saying header li, and we'll turn off the bullet points by saying list-style: none. And if we refresh the page we now see that the bullet points went away. The next task is to style the links that are sitting inside the li elements and to make them look like buttons. However styling links is not exactly as straight forward as styling a regular element, and that's because links have states. And these states can be expressed using our pseudo-classes. So let's go ahead and do that. So here we're targeting two states. One is a's being a link that it is. And another one a visited. And this is very often the practice that you group together these two. And what basically that means is well link is at the way it is link, and visited means that HTML allows that after you click a particular link that a different style can be applied to that link than an unclicked link. In our case, however, we don't want to differentiate between the two, so we'll style them both together. Okay, so let's start by removing the underline that is the default styling for every link. Once we save that and refresh, we see that underline is gone. Okay, so let's add some other styles. We'll set the background color to green. Border, one pixel with solid, meaning solid versus dash or something like that, and blue. And we'll set the color of the text inside these links to black. Let's go ahead and refresh the page, and here we'll see we have a blue border, it's a green background, and the color is black. Now I spoke to you before about the fact that the a element is both sort of an inline element and a block level element. However, that's only as far as inclusion of other elements inside of it is concerned. As far as this default display, it's actually displayed as an inline element. Well we don't want that for our buttons, we want them to block level element. Well I can change that very quickly by just saying display: block. And once I say display: block and refresh you can see that the block level elements do what they always do, try to fill up all the space as they possibly can within that line. So I'm going to have to constrain it a little bit. Let's go ahead and give it a width of 200 pixels. We don't want our button to be that wide, and we want our line and menu items to be center. And we'll also separate the different menu buttons from each other by giving it a margin bottom of one pixel. So let's go ahead and refresh that. And now we see we have three little nice buttons in our menu. However we're not done because what we would like to do is on the user hovering over these buttons, besides changing the cursor to a pointer, I'd like to have some sort of interaction in the style and kind of show the user that they're hovering over these buttons. So in order to do that I have to define two more states of the link. One is a hover and the other a active. Now hover is exactly what it sounds like. So when the user hovers over the element, in this case the a element. An active is that state when the user actually clicks on the element but hasn't yet released his click. So he pressed the mouse button down but hasn't yet released the button. In our case we don't want to differentiate between the hover and active, so we'll keep them grouped together. Let's set the background color to red and the color of the text to purple. We'll save it and preview it in our browser. So now when I roll over, you can see that the color of the background changes to red and the color of the font is changing to purple even though combination with red it's kind of actually looking blue. Now these buttons still retain their link behavior. So if I click on this link, I will go to the Facebook page that happens to be the fan page that I created specifically for the courses that I'm teaching on Coursera, which is this course and the next one, which is an angular.js. As a side note, please go to this page and like it. You'll be able to follow the latest updates and I will be posting some optional material that might be interesting to you that's related to web development. And please sign up for the mailing list that I'll be able to notify you when some new, interesting material comes out. Obviously all this is completely optional. In it's simplest form, the nth child pseudo-selector allows you to target a particular element within a list. For example I'd like to target this Facebook fan page link and I'd like to make it bigger just so you remember to click on it and like the page. So let's take a look at the HTML where it's located. It's located in the header section and there is a URL and there are three li elements in here. The Facebook link is the third one in the list. So I could go over to my style and I can say that I want to target the li element that is inside the header element. And I want it to be nth-child(3), so that's the third link. And now I can target it and say for example, font-size to be 24 pixels, so I'll make it a little larger. So if I refresh the page, you'll see that only the third link, the third menu button, became bigger. The rest of them stayed exactly the same. But nth child pseudo selector can do much more fun stuff than that. For example we have a list of DIVs here that looks pretty dull. So what I'd like to do is I'd like to make it look like a list and what I want is that every odd member of this list should get its background color to be gray. So the way I could achieve that is by targeting the div inside the section and I'll specify the nth child again. And instead of specifying the numbers one, three, and so on, I could specify odd. And if I do that and say background color gray and refresh my page, all of a sudden I have a list that's looking much, much easier to read than before. And by the way, just like regular selectors can be combined, pseudo-selectors can be combined as well. For example, if I would like to have the fourth element in this list have a different hover behavior, since right now nothing really changes when I hover over the fourth element on the list, I'd like to have that changed. So let's go ahead and target again, section div, and target the nth child. This time I want the fourth child to be targeted, but I want to specify that its hover behavior should be different, so I'm going to target the hover behavior part. And I'm going to change this background color to green and its cursor to pointer. So let's go ahead and refresh the page. And now when I hover over number four, the cursor turns into the pointer and the background of that element turns green. I'm sure by now you see how powerful selectors can be, especially using the pseudo-class selectors. One quick word of warning though, make sure your selector is still readable. These things can get very complicated very quickly. And if you make it such that other developers, and you in a month or so can't really understand fairly easily what you're targeting, this can become kind of a maintenance nightmare. So simple and readable is definitely preferred to complicated and tricky. You might be able to impress people with it, but it's certainly not good coding practice to make this super complicated. Next, we're going to talk about where do we place the CSS styles. What is the best place to place it and what the differences between those places are.