[MUSIC] Looking for the right selection tools can be a little bit overwhelming. There are so many to choose from, and I will present a number here in this video to you, but there's some things that should drive your quest for the right selection tool, so let's take a look. Let's make sure that we take the right steps to a good hire. First of all, we want to have those good foundations of a job analysis that's been completed. We've identified the knowledge, skills, abilities, other characteristics and competencies that are needed. And we've completed the job description. We then based on the things determined what selection methods to use. Structured interview, personality inventory, cognitive ability test, whatever it is, it's based on those job competencies. Then we conduct the methods. In this course, we've been building our way up to a good hire making sure we have everything in place. And so everything's been very foundational. We did job analysis back in 1.4, and these topics are covered in 3.2, 3.3, again all leading up to a good hire. So the focus of our session today, in this video, is the second one. Determining what selection methods to use. Again it can feel a bit overwhelming, the number of options available to us, for testing applicants for positions, and so we need to make sure That whatever we find, they're valid predictors of job performance. So let's take a look. Kind of a refresher here, we've looked at this before. Remember we talked about both validity and reliability. So here we are with reliability at top. And that is thinking about where we provide statistically reliable information. So whatever testing option we select should have reliability and validity. Validity, remember, is the extent to which it measures what it's supposed to assess. So does the test score assess actual job performance. Remember, it can't be valid, a test can't be valid if it's not reliable. So if we can't get consistent results over time, then we're going to assume that there is something wrong with the validity of the test. Let's talk for a moment about validity generalization. Validity is not just situation-specific. And what I mean by that is generalizable tests can be very helpful to us, because something like an IQ test is not necessarily going to be limited to one position within your organization or across organizations. IQ tests can be used in many settings, personality inventories in many kinds of settings. And so there are thousands of studies that has shown a prediction of job performance from particular kinds of test not just one sort of study, and not one position or one company that allows us to establish definite values for the average validity of most predictors across the board. Okay. So what are the best predictors of job performance? If you only have a limited budget and limited time, don't you want to test people on the things that are actually going to make a difference? And they will help predict job performance? Let's take a look. Okay, here we go. Work sample tests, general metal ability tests, and structured interviews. Here's are our top scoring areas. So, we have talked about validity, and in another video we talked about types of validity like content validity and construct validity in these different areas. So, in this particular area of work-sample tests is very, very content valid. And it tends to be very reliable. So it scores really well in terms of being a predictor of job performance. Because what a great way to assess an applicants job potential by having them actually perform a portion of work they will be doing. So there's a few different types of work samples that I'll discuss. The first one is in basket Exercise. And the second are role playing or role plays. So, in basket exercises are normally designed to show administrative tasks of a job. So for instance, and this could be at a management level or really sort of any administrative level within the company. But typically the test taker is given some information on either the actual organization or a fake organization, and then they're supposed to think about themselves in that job, in that role, within the organization that they're applying for. So, once again, content valid, because I'm thinking about that particular job, what would I do? The test taker is often asked to respond to things like emails, personnel issues, in a very small amount of time. So there's a time limit imposed, and they typically give, they show the candidate's ability to manage tasks, and delegate work, analyze information. They can be administered in a wide variety of venues sometimes they're in assessment centers where managers, where you conduct management testing, and then also it could be paper and pencil or it could be situation based on a computer. So there's all those different things. So that's the first one. And then role plays is another type of work simulation or work sample. And in role playing, you may have a candidate simulate interpersonal challenges, for instance, that they face when working with other people. So, for instance, if the person has in their job contact with a customer, you may say, okay the customer says this or does this, how would you react? And so there are actors, and you would have someone who plays the role of customer. Someone plays the role perhaps of a coworker. And then you have the candidate of course play the role of the job that he or she is applying for. So it's pretty interesting and performances typically observe by someone who's a train evaluator or could be evaluator later if it's taped. So in work sample test, we're showing th ability to do rather than to know. So a general mental ability test has some similarity to work samples in that your testing someone's thought process thought giving them some sort of situation or some simulation. But not always, because aptitude and ability test could be regular kinds of IQ tests and other kinds of logical reasoning tests. So sometimes they consist of a number of multiple choice questions and they're timed. And you may have to answer questions either on paper or online. And so aptitude and ability tests can be classified maybe sometimes as speed tests, power tests, knowledge tests. So it's sort of that bucket. So here we have IQ tests, verbal, nonverbal, numerical, spatial, motor function, mechanical information, reasoning and comprehension. So you can see there's a number of different types of general mental ability tests. Okay our final winner on our type of candidate evaluation tools are the structured interviews. Structured interviews, when done well, have a high degree of validity and reliability. They're prepared in advance. The same questions are asked of each interviewee, so again, promoting reliability and then of course, the validity comes from when you're asking questions that are related back to the job. Well then you may say, what are some of the low predictors of job success? What are the things to avoid? Low predictors of job success include, personal interests, years of education, and sometimes job experience could be on there as well. Because just because someone's worked in an area for a long time doesn't mean that they're necessarily effective at it. And then the first few years there is some research that points to GPA matters, but beyond that It's a low predictor of job success and we do not see a positive correlation between a higher GPA and better job performance after the first few years. I really wanted to call this one out. No predictor of job success, so these are low, right, the ones that I spoke of here, but this one is no predictor of job success, age. So do not take into account a candidate's age, it has no bearing on whether or not that person will be good at what he or she does. So I told you I was going to give you a lengthy list of different types of employment testing, and here we go. So another one is integrity tests, and integrity tests do have a decent amount of validity, of course it depends on the job and what you are using for a test, but you can find some tests out there that have a decent degree of validity. And another one is personality inventories kind of the same thing it's a bit hit or miss, some studies show that it's a little bit higher, some a little bit lower, and it goes back again relinking the competencies in a job to the personality traits that are actually required. Physical ability tests are also something that is very helpful in certain positions. So if you think about a fire fighter, a police officer, certain jobs where there's a physical component to it we want to make sure that people have the capability. In a previous job I worked for, we had a lot of warehouse workers, and we needed to make sure that they could lift up to 50 pounds on a repetitive basis. Okay, next up is emotional intelligence, and the jury's out a bit still on this. Some people that I know really swear by it, and they really believe in it and others say there's just not enough research related to it. But if I was going to summarize emotional intelligence in about ten seconds here, I'd say that it is the ability to understand yourself, and how you react to things, and how well you communicate with others. And it's your ability to control your relationships with others as well. So just being sort of wise to how you are within yourself, and how you react to other people and your relationships with others. And so if that's something that's necessary in the job, perhaps you could find some sort of validated tool that you could link to job performance. Prior work samples are important, as well. I do like to see these in a hiring process, and so I work for the company that has a graphic designers, and I would take a look and see what had been done in the past. You'll get a feel for their style, and what they would bring to the organization. Medical examinations and drug and alcohol screening are also important for particular jobs, about the jobs that deal with safety, production environments. But medical examinations, I think of for instance, truck drivers here in the United States have to take medical exams once a year. They have to keep a card in their truck know that they're able to show, if they get pulled over, that they've had their exam. They have a drug screen at that time, they do a full physical. And then there are a lot of companies that have drug and alcohol screens as part of pre-employment hiring. So I've had a lot of experience in that area. And one thing that I will mention is just make sure if you implement drug and alcohol screening within your organization that you pay attention to state laws because certain states are very stringent about what you can and cannot do related to that. And then the last one here, references and background check. So, references are a best practice. They really are. You may not get a lot of information, I said that in another video, because if someone lists a personal reference the person's probably going to say very nice things about that individual. So, sometimes it's really hard to get beyond that surface, and if it's a professional reference you call the company sometimes they wont give you any information. They are afraid of perhaps getting sued for saying something. A lot of organizations are very reluctant to do that. So, you would typically only get dates of employment, title only. But, nonetheless, because of negligent hiring, again I talk about in a different video It's good to check references, and of course the same exact thing with background check, making sure that you conduct a thorough background screening on education on their employment history and criminal background, driving record, all of these components. So make sure you check out the video on background checks in this course. So, the options are vast, which to select? First, make sure again, you let that job analysis, and those competencies guide you in your selection. Also think about what is a good cultural fit, where is the organization going in the future, what are the competencies that people need to meet those demands. Also, what else will drive your search? The price. Some of these kinds of tests are expensive. Some of them take a lot of time. So you have to find something that works for your organization.