[MUSIC] In the early stages of an emergency, shelter is a critical determinant of survival, along with water supply, sanitation, food and healthcare. Shelter plays an essential role in reducing vulnerability and building communities' resilience. In this module we will cover a range of issues associated with shelter. We will cover what is meant by suitable shelter. We will explain why access to suitable shelter is important for immediate and longer-term recovery for people affected by a humanitarian crisis. We will look at available appropriate options to address the shelter needs in different situations. We will also illustrate the impact that suitable shelter has on the health and well-being of the people affected. We will list other related factors that may have to be addressed to compliment the actual shelter itself. And lastly, we will look at some challenges likely to be met when implementing a shelter program. First we will consider the scale of the global challenges caused by emergencies. By mid-November 2016, over 350 million people were affected in some way due to approximately 200 reported natural disasters that year. These ranged from storms and other weather events, such as floods and droughts, to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and their aftereffects, such as tsunamis. In 2016, Asia, with the largest population numbers and most densely populated countries, registered half of these reported disasters and 97% of the affected people. Of course, not everyone has the same level of vulnerability and some will be able to cope better than others. The numbers are nevertheless significant. And the trend over the last 50 years shows more disasters and more people that are affected, with a peak around the turn of the century. Since then, the reported number of events has trended downwards, but not the number of people affected. And then there is forced displacement due to manmade disasters. Increased conflict and persecution creates internally displaced populations and refugees. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, or UNHCR, estimated that on average 24 people were forced to flee each minute in 2015 somewhere in the world, 4 times more than a decade earlier. By the end of 2015, the total number reached 65.3 million people displaced, a third being refugees with an uncertain future. Many of these require shelter solutions, both in the immediate term and frequently for a longer duration. Communities in Somalia, for instance, have been displaced internally for many years. Even with assistance, people have been forced to improvise and adapt to provide shelter for their families. Others have been forced to flee across borders, becoming refugees in other countries. For the refugees and displaced in the Syrian conflict, no one knows how long they will be away from their home areas, or the current state of their former homes, and if they'll be able to return to them. UNHCR estimates that in recent years anywhere up to 80 million people have lost their homes or have become victims of forced displacement. In a humanitarian setting, the most important consideration is about saving lives. In such a context, we must consider how people may be affected by the climate or surroundings. How safe and healthy they are, and how they will look after themselves. If we talk about suitable shelter, we mean more than just the actual structure itself. The building or structure people live in is certainly important physically. This allows people to live as well as possible according to the conditions, the climate, and cultural norms. It must also be safe and healthy. For example, it should offer the ability to keep it clean, to keep insects and dust out, and so on. This could be anything from a concrete or a wooden house or a traditional hut, or a tent. They must be needs specific and context specific. In addition, the shelter provides protection and dignity to the people living within, a safe place for the families, their children, and their belongings. Often the family uses a shelter for income generation or other livelihood activities to support themselves. These activities must be prioritized to help rebuild self-sufficiency. Thirdly, the shelter defines the position, or place, the family plays within the community, how people support each other and coexist and interact. It covers the physical location in terms of access and availability of, for example, transport and utilities, or services such as markets and healthcare facilities. So, shelter is so much more than just a roof. Here are the elements shown on the previous slide, displayed graphically in three pillars, or houses if you like. We suggest you pause this module for a moment and read through the text on the slide. Think of these points in relation to where you, yourself grew up, or where you live now. These issues do not really change despite the context, even after an emergency situation, although they maybe disrupted for some time in such cases. We suggest you watch this short film. It will help to make some of the concepts more concrete. Note how all the points mentioned in the last slide are addressed in this simple example, as well as the focus on the community approach and the family's role within that community. I hope this video was useful to you. So what should be done when a disaster occurs? Not everybody affected by a natural or a manmade disaster will require a new shelter. Some will be able to under take repairs themselves, using their own resources, or they get assistance from their communities. Still, the provision of suitable shelters solutions is a fundamental step in the process of recovery and getting communities back onto their feet. For any intervention, the importance of a good on-site assessment is critical to understand the needs and desires, the capacities and strengths and the priorities of the communities themselves. The assessment should ideally be undertaken immediately after or during an ongoing disaster, and is usually done as part of a multi-sector assessment, during which one looks at all people's needs. It is commonly done in close cooperation between a number of local and external agencies and parties, including the government if possible. Also remember that needs will often vary in different areas affected by the same disaster. A flood, for instance, will affect different groups of people to different degrees and for different periods of time. Assessment will try and identify these differences. An assessment would consider what impact a disaster has on people's homes and services. Where and how are the affected people now living? What has been the direct impact on the livelihoods and what are they doing to restart them? What is the prevailing climate and how is the weather now and in the coming months? And an assessment should also consider what available options regarding shelter assistance the agencies and authorities have, and how appropriate or necessary are they in this particular context? Here you can see part of a typical rapid assessment form or checklist as used in Pakistan a few years ago. Note that the full list covers all related sectors and is for use by multiple agencies. Such a rapid assessment exercise would be followed by more detailed, regular assessments in later months. We also should not forget that vulnerabilities and capacities may vary considerably between urban and rural communities, between neighboring communities or between those affected by war and displacement and those affected by natural disaster. Before getting into the potential shelter solutions, let's briefly explore the concept of displacement and non-displacement. Non-displaced are people such as those affected by an earthquake or other natural disasters, who remain in their home areas and usually with the existing community structures in place. Non-displaced people can often start their recovery immediately. Displaced are people who have been forced to move away from their homes and home areas, possibly crossing borders, and have become refugees with little likelihood of a quick return. Some of those are fleeing ongoing conflicts, such as in South Sudan or Syria. Displaced people go through a more uncertain situation regarding if and when they can return to their home areas, and what they do in the meantime. This distinction will have a direct impact on deciding the most appropriate interventions to be made.