Going to take a minute and then look at the precursors that lead up to this incredible transformation that's taking place. We can also think about them as enabling factors. Heads up, test question. [LAUGH] Don't say you weren't warned. So with IPv4, we only had 2 to the 32 addresses for years. When the Internet was first formed, they had four byte IP address. And with all of these devices needing to be assigned IP addresses, they were running out. So probably heard of IPv6, right? So it supports 2 to the 128 addresses, which in decimal is 340 x 10 to the 36 addresses. So I think we're pretty good for a while. [LAUGH] That's an enormous number Get us past that 32-bit boundary. I lived through, this dates myself, when [INAUDIBLE] first came out, it had a 640k byte boundary, that's what it was. The system CPU couldn't address more than 640K bits of memory. That was 1983 or 4, something like that. When the first machines were built, one, I thought, one machine on the west coast, one machine on the east coast and we'll one machine in the central US, like Kansas City or something. And that will meet all the computing needs our country will ever need. Quickly became apparent that was not the case. Okay, so we got IPv6. There's an enormous number of addresses. There's a dramatic reduction in costs. Cost of the sensors, cost of compute, cost of network bandwidth, and costs of storage. All of these things have fallen off a cliff in the last several few years. Here they're getting cheaper, and cheaper and cheaper and cheaper. Let's see if I can get these numbers right. When I started at Seagate working on hard drives, I think the price per gigabyte was somewhere in the $0.15 to $0.20 a gigabyte. And nine years later, when I left it was less than a nickle a gigabyte. And now it's probably sub penny at this point. On the flash side, solid state drives, market price probably is somewhere in the $0.35 to $0.65 a gigabyte range. But it continues to fall as well because we just keep reducing the size of the cells. And we're going vertically as well, building layers upon layers upon layers and building vertical NAND all to drag the price per bit down. And that's going to continue unabated. A dramatic reduction in power consumption for compute and wireless communication. So we have seen a drop, there's still more work that needs to be done, in my opinion, in terms of power consumption. On the compute side and the memory, at some point I'll have some words to say about that. But I don't want to digress right now, because I could talk about that for a long time [LAUGH]. And a dramatic reduction in sizes of the sensors, sizes of the chips on a board. And how you can build a particular implementation ten years ago might have been on a board that might be this big. But due to the miniaturization of components, you might be able to build that board in this much square area. So everything's been getting smaller and smaller and smaller, which helps. Machine to machine, for the purpose of this class when you see M2M that means machine to machine communication, that means legacy communication. And I'm going to define it later as non-TCPIP communication and make a distinction there. And you heard the gentleman in the video talk about this smorgasbord of these protocols and modern manufacturing facilities that are undergoing this transformation, you see some ethernet in there but you see a lot of legacy systems as well that use these proprietory protocols. So machine to machine, M2M communication, machine to machine communication is going to mean these legacy sections, non-TCPIP communications. One of the key things that's happening here is a joining of operational technology, which the gentleman in the video was talking about how the order used to come in on a piece of paper, and it would take a day to get it to the factory floor. As with operating a business, operating a manufacturing plant that produces some goods, that's what operational technology refers to. And information technology, we're familiar with that because that's the Internet. That's our PCs, that's web browsers and all of that. And these are being merged together within an organization. And then that gets connected to the Internet. That then enables remote access. And that enables the manager to fire up his phone and if he can't sleep, he wakes up at 2:30 in the morning and he can essentially login and he can check the production process, how the are products' been assembled. He can run diagnostics and see if any machines are predicting a part failure, And on, and on, and on. These are the types of capabilities that we're looking at and are being rolled out today. So another way to look at it is it comes as a confluence of all the sensor data because the sensors are cheap, they're inexpensive, they're wireless. Some of them are even self-powered. Later when we look at sensors there's this really cool one that harnesses energy from its environment. It charges up a little battery, and it can turn on and collect and transmit data, and if there's enough energy in the environment it can stay powered on continuously. But just burst data out periodically, it's pretty cool. So we got sensor data, we got machine learning, and we got big data analytics. We start to see a pattern here. This is an eye chart, I'm not going to read this whole thing. If you're interested in the history you can read this on your own time, read this other stuff over here. So back in around 2005, right in this timeframe right here, promotions by companies such as Bosch, Cisco Systems, and Intel made this move towards the use of Internet protocol and smart objects. And China also announced major investment in research related to IoT in this timeframe here. And then out here, 2010 to the present, I mentioned IPv6 already. And Cisco, IBM, Ericsson produce large educational and marketing incentives on the topic. So companies like Cisco and IBM, these technology companies, they're all over this. And they're working hard to push these technologies, these solutions out into the marketplace to help customers in production facilities increase their operational efficiency. Yes.