Welcome to my lecturing Managing Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul for Civil Aircraft. I would like to introduce myself, first of all, my name is Josef Mendler, I'm Aircraft Engineer almost 25 years, and working now as a compliance verification engineer in various companies, design organization. So I'm highly involved since a couple of years, more than two decades in this world of certification, and here in lecture 1, I would like to focus on the World of Certification covering CAMO, which means, Continuing Airworthiness Management Organisation. First of all, let's have a look to the phases of aircraft development. In this phases, three parties, main parties are involved. It's the engineering, the manufacturing, and maintenance. Engineering is mainly oriented and guided by the requirements of aircraft engineers. That means, consisting of compliance with verification and certification requirements in correlation with significant load cases, functional specifications, etc. Customer liaison, and In-Service-Support, is a additional challenging task which has to be taken into account in the very previous and early stage of phases of aircraft development. Engineers are definitely interested in applying cutting edge technologies in their new aircraft they are going to develop. The second party is the manufacturing. These are manufacturing facilities and those are mainly driven by cost, and here, cost reduction, of course. Costs are mainly composed by recurring costs and nonrecurring costs. Nonrecurring costs are determined by engineering stuff. Customer support is also a major issue of manufacturing facilities because customers are interested in getting spare parts in order to perform specific repair procedures they are accredited for or allowed for. Robustness of the manufacturing process is another challenging task which has to be fulfilled by manufacturing facilities. Manufacturing facilities are at least in the duty to guarantee a repeatable, high-quality of produced parts. Last but not least, the cutting edge technologies should also be applied within manufacturing, but of course, those applications are over covered by cost reduction demands. The third party is the maintenance facility. Maintenance at least is interested in having robust structure and systems. That means, the system must be inspectable, it must be repairable, at least it must be accessible. Corrosion resistance is another driving factor which determines at least the fatigue life limits, and large inspection intervals means that's in correlation with those determined factors. Low-cost of spare parts is another item, which means that the design operating costs could be kept small. Those three parties, engineering, manufacturing, and maintenance, also cooperate along the line of certification. Certification of an aircraft is at least determined by two major milestones, that's a type certification and the aircraft certification. Type certification is issued by the authorities in national terms spoken, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt or in European terms spoken, EASA. For North-American market, the FAA is responsible. But at least the input must be provided by Engineering. Engineering, which takes into account the certification requirements. Here for a fixed-wing aircraft, so it's EASA part 25 or the FAR 25. Here with this conformity and after check of the authorities, the type certification is issued. In the next step, the production and manufacturing facility is required. Here, the conformity to the requirements, to the documents, to the design documents must be stated by production, and after checking and being issued by the authority, aircraft certification is cleared and is issued, then the aircraft is able to be put into operation. The operator at least is interested in maintaining the certification, and that means maintenance is a major challenge for those operators. So these operational items and maintenance items are determined by EASA Part 145. In order to repeat these terms, this very significant and important terms, let's have just a look at those three topics. Types certification is a prototype assessment, which at least checks the conformance and the certification of the prototype assessment is the base for the accreditation of the aircraft. Then we have the aircraft certification, which is the statement of conformity issued by manufacturing. Declaration of accordance of manufactured aircraft with approved prototype means it is the airworthiness of the single part and the system. The certification is at least the base for the flight accreditation of an aircraft. In the third step, we have the maintenance check. It means that the declaration of the accordingly accomplishments of maintenance is issued and the certificate of the maintenance check is implemented. That means, this certificate of the maintenance check is the base for the further operation of the aircraft. Let's look at the cooperation of EASA part 21G, and part 145 in order to understand the cooperation of engineering, manufacturing, and air operation. Engineering, first of all is accredited according to part 21J. There the standards and regulations, the certifications, for example and the specifications accordingly are stated, and the engineering provides a compliance statement. That means aircraft is compliant with the certification specifications which are issued by EASA. EASA then releases this type certificate. If that's issued, then again, the manufacturing company accredited according to 21J, which is also taken into account the standards about how the aircraft is manufactured at least than states the conformity, that means the aircraft is manufactured in conformity with the certified type. That means according to all the documents which had been issued by the engineering. In our case in Germany, the national authority Lufftahrt- Bundesamt then issues the certificate of airworthiness in German "Verkehrszulassung." The aircraft is then put into operation. Again, the aircraft is accompanied by standard manuals and also by a definite maintenance program defined by design organization based on in service experience. For maintenance, which is again, according to EASA part 145 accredited standards and regulations of driving factors. Maintenance, repair, and overhaul is a major issue which at least finalizes the statement of conformity, after that aircraft can be put back into operation again. Maintenance, according to EASA part 145, which at least covers CAMO, means that the maintenance organization are allowed to perform all activities only on the basis of approved maintenance data of a design organization. CAMO maintenance requirements are described in specific documents. For example, the aircraft maintenance manual, AMM, or the component maintenance manual, CMM, also engine manual or structural repair manual are of major issues in order to provide some scales for maintenance activities for the maintenance company or the airliner, and the operator of the aircraft. Those manuals then are designed for one specific aircraft type only. Maintenance also may only be carried out within the officially approved scope. For this purpose, as distinction is made between three basic maintenance approaches, there is an A rating that means covering the complete aircraft, entitled to maintain the aircraft includes also aircraft components, that means, for example, the engine or the APU, that's the auxiliary power unit, provided they are in the installed state. The B rating refers to the engine rating, entitled to maintain the dismounted engine and APU with associated aircraft components. The C rating is at least a component rating for maintaining dismantled aircraft components, excluding the engine and the APUs. Documentation as already mentioned, is a wide area which has to be associating the aircraft at least and is issued according to the Air Transport Association Specification. So we have the general requirements which at least issued by the authorities, FAA, EASA. Then we have the product design requirements. These are the drawings, the documentation from stress department, fatigue department, and so on. Of course, based on that safety, reliability, and maintainability manuals, the AMM are issued, also the certification and the qualification, ACD or SJR, structural justification reporting. The customer support is at least supported and accompanied by the SRM, the structural repair manual, and the IPC, TSM. IPC means for example, illustrated parts catalog. So coming to an example, we also can see that according to EASA part 145, maintaining is performed according to a typical interval sequence, which is also correlated to a definite duration and also to a definite effort. So just for example, starting out with a trip check is, just in front of each flights for duration of half an hour, so it's a quite limited man-hour of half an hour again, or walk around cockpit checks, visual checks are the typical work steps to be performed. Ramp check, service check, E, B, C checks, and up to D check, which at least last for a longer time of four weeks, and a typical interval for that is 130 months. You can see that the effort is quite high, up to 30,000 man-hours. That means here the overall of the complete structure and system is performed, contains all the above mentioned inspections, painting, and polishing. So just to provide an example, what are the implementing rule continuing airworthiness? First of all, we have a terms of approval. Maintenance organization are allowed to perform all activities only on the basis of an approval provided by the authorities. These limitations can also be seen in the above mentioned manuals. Then we have the facility requirements. Facilities are provided appropriate for all planned work, ensuring in particular, protection for the elements. Specialized workshops and bays are segregated as appropriate in order to ensure that environmental and work area contamination is unlikely to occur. Then last but not least, we have the personal requirements. The organization shall appoint an accountable manager who has cooperate authority for ensuring that all maintenance required by the customer can be financed and carried out to the standards required by this part. This accountable manager shall ensure that all necessary resources are available to the accomplished maintenance. So let's conclude on that, I'll provide here a set of literature and we'll be happy to guide you to the next lecture.