[MUSIC] So, this is a little lesson about maps and type. At Newsweek, and at every other place I worked, we had these style guides that helped us. We had them for graphed charts too. It defined exactly how our maps had to look. We didn't want it making it look like, if Ed created a map that looked like an Ed map. Or if I created one it looked like a Carl map. We want it to look like it was branded by our company. And in this case, this was Newsweek, and this was designed by our director of information graphics at the time, not me. It basically digs into the minutia of how you should think about making maps. So, when you look at, for example, the water color. It has any percentage of 40 cyan, zero magenta, five yellow, and five black. When you look at the city dots, on the top left there. It actually says that is has to be two points distance from the edge of the text to the edge of the circle. That's how careful you have to be. If you want to look good, you want to make sure that your work is clean and beautifully designed. Iit just adds to the credibility of what you are creating here. So, think about creating a style guide that really helps anybody who makes a map follow it. So it looks just like it came from your organization. So, when I'm making a map I like to have a certain hierarchy of information on that map. So, for example, on this one for Newsweek, there's a headline and there's a subhead. People love to know what they're about to get into and that will explain it to them. And then I have what are called section heads. You'll see on the brown boxes under the headline on the top right, those are introducing two new sections. And they're bigger type. They're smaller than the headline, but they're bigger than the body copy. And then you've got the body copy, which is in the white boxes, that has a lead in label. And a bold lead in label that basically allows the map to be scannable. Bad guys here, good guys there, whatever. And then there's text explaining that. You want to have that bold label so that they don't have to read all that text, if they don't want to. They can just scan the whole map. And one key point about this map that you'll notice is, these white boxes actually put the information on top of the map itself. So, a map can have data right on top of it, pointing in and explaining everything that's going on. It's like if you go to a wedding or an event and everybody has their name tag on. It's right on them, it's right on the place that it's happening. And then, at the very bottom, notice I have this very small type that puts your sources. So, that's really small, but it's almost invisible, but it's still legible. So, that's all very fancy type that's very structured and done on the computer. But this is something, last summer my son and I took a 8,400 mile trip around America and I got ahold of the atlas. So, when I wasn't driving, I was drawing on this atlas and and talking about our trip and illustrating our trip. And so, using felt pens and markers and liquid paper white out and stuff, I made this. But you'll see that there's a different way that data was put onto this map. I put the information on this map, by keying it to information on the outside of the map. Not inside the map, like the previous one, so there are numbers inside the map ,that are key to explanations on the outside. And I also added a little bar chart showing some people came and visited us and traveled a little bit with us. So, I actually drew a little bar chart showing how far everybody went, which was just kind of fun. I talked about this map in another video. But basically, working with type you want to make sure that whatever you have on a map it's not competing with the other elements on the map. You have to lighten the tint or change the color or whatever it is. In this case, the black labels are slamming into the black roads and then it just becomes very cluttered and messy. Colors are a very important thing to consider on a map. Because, most maps wind up in color with type on them. And in the top left version here you see it's hard to read the black type. In the top middle one, it's hard to read the white type. So, you start doing crummy things and crazy things like coloring them and adding drop shadows. Which really starts to make the map look ugly, I think and a little bit cluttered. And then ,on the second row down, you got some outlining going on there. And you know, the truth is, if you're doing all of that stuff to try to get the type legible, the design is failing. You need to rethink the design. The two on the bottom work. It's a lighter background with a darker type, or a darker background with a lighter type. Also, avoid this kind of crummy-looking text that looks like it came out of WordArt or in PowerPoint. WordArt is not high art, and WordArt didn't even look good in your PowerPoint presentation in the fifth grade. This type has never looked good. There's too much space between all of it. It's got a drop between each letter. There's a drop shadow on it and it's green. Just keep it simple. If you don't know how to work with type, don't design with type. Just keep it very straightforward and speaking of whatever font you use, there different kinds of fonts. There's a serif font that has a little squiggly things, they were designed so that one letter would flow more easily into the next letter. And then there's the blockier type, the san-serif, it lops off all those little tails that are on the serif font. And those, I prefer those for graphics, they really read well on the web and they're very bold and simple. And nowadays, that's pretty much all I use. And then at the bottom, you have the display type, which is really more blocky type. There's things called slab fonts, which you might want to look at and they're really for headline stuff. You wouldn't want to write an entire graphic using those fonts. Those display fonts and there are different weights of styles of that font. So, the font is the letter face itself and then there's styles of that font. There's italic and bold and so on. So, you want to mix up those styles, so that there's a hierarchy in what you're talking about. So, bold says, I'm important. If everything's bold an a map, or a graphic, or a chart. If everything's special, then nothing's special. You don't want to have it all bold, you just have certain things bold. And then, lighter face for the stuff that really is less important than that. And you don't ever want to add drop shadows to type, because it just makes it more ugly. People love drop shadows for some reason. And if you're putting a drop shadow, so that the type lifts itself from the background, again, your design is failing. So, think of a hierarchy of sizes and styles again in your map. So, in this case, if you have a title, don't worry about the sizes on this. It's really about the size relationships. This headline's actually a little big, but I tend to put a bigger headline. And a slightly larger subhead under that, compared to the body copy. This is basically the same hierarchy I talked about on the Iraq map. Remember to do this, and you also want to make sure that your font is kearned tightly together. So that, it looks more like this and it doesn't look like you can drive a Buick between every letter.