We all are very familiar with financial auditing. So as we all know that listed companies need to reviewed by financial auditors at least once a year. So financial auditing is being with us for very long time, but now we talk about information systems auditing. So the first question probably come to your mind would be what is the difference? Are they doing the same thing? What's the difference between financial auditing and IS auditing? Now, I would like to ask Gloria. Could you please explain a little bit about to our audience what is the main difference between financial auditing and IS auditing? Okay. I think many of the people know financial auditing especially when they read the annual report from different listed company. That's right. So that is actually mainly focusing on the balance sheet and also the P&L. So those are mainly focusing on the financial figures. Looking at the numbers. They will also look into the business operations. But the ultimate purpose is for the financial figures itself and see whether there is anything that could be misleading, and the auditor would provide the opinion on that particular financial reports for listed companies or even through some of the non-listed companies. They may also get the auditors to help them to audit the financial statements as well. So that's I think many of the people would know about that and be familiar with that. But then for IS audit, actually nowadays, because many of the companies or even most of the companies, they will have a lot of different technologies that helps their business to operate. We can't survive without technology nowadays. Right, exactly. Also because of the financial statement itself. It actually generates from a financial systems. Systems are the keywords here, right? Exactly. So that's why it's really important that we get someone to look into the system itself and especially for their financial systems or for those present systems, it will finally hit the financial statements. So we need to ensure all those information flowing through, really reliable, especially when we talk about the financial auditors. They need to utilize all this kind of data to perform their work. So an IS auditor is actually helping to ensure or to check the controls over their systems and see whether it is what we call is control reliable, whether there could be any risk in the systems that could possibly affect the accuracy of those data and whether those data could be amended by somebody who are not really supposed to do that kind of work. Yes. Sometimes some people manipulate the data, right? Yeah. So some of the work that IS auditor will do is they would check those assets to different systems and see whether those system can can be manipulated or accessed by any unauthorized people that may impact the accuracy and also the integrity of the data. So that's will be part of the work that IS auditor would do. But, of course, we're not just focusing on the financial data at the end because for some of the work that IS auditor do, they may not be doing from financial audit perspective. They may do it from like, for example, an internal audit perspective or internal control perspective. Basically looking at the way things happened that as management wish. Yeah, exactly because these days, many of the management, they will just assume that I have invested certain amount of money in the system, so I would expect my colleagues would really utilize this kind of systems and perform the business operations as what they think. But in actual case, is it really happening as what management expect? So the IS auditor, they can actually help the management to review or those kind of systems and see whether it is really getting in line with what the management is thinking. They give assurance. Yes, some of the projects. Give assurance to the management and assurance to the government authorities and assurance to us, as customers. Right. Other than assurance type of work. There are, of course, some of the management, they just want to dig out what are the gaps or issues. So sometimes the IS auditor will try to help the management to find out all those gaps, what those gaps means. That means it could be a gap between the policy setup within the companies, or it could be some gaps as compared to the regulatory requirements. That's true. So the gaps between what they would like to have and what's really practicing. Exactly. Yeah. So then that's what's so-called gap analysis sometimes. So we do call it as gap analysis. Yes. So many of the work that the IS auditor would do is helping the the management to really identify all these kind of exception and, of course, not just identify the exception but as an IS auditor, I will also provide recommendation to the management. How to streamline the business process, how can we improve information security, how can you improve the customers data protection. So all these things, auditors give some recommendations. Those recommendations becomes policies and procedures come from the senior management. That's right. So for this recommendation, of course, we need to, for each of the case, it depends on different companies, different industries and also depends on different requirements from the regulators so that we can come up with a better solution for the management to consider whether they would think of any other ways to fix the problems or to minimize the gap. So this is how the IS auditor would do most of the time and in some other occasions, we're not really just positioning us as an auditor alone. Sometimes we'll also help our clients to provide different advisory as well. So you call IT advisory. Yeah. We're trained to position ourself to advise our clients by providing them with some, for example, value-added recommendation. How can they start with new technologies, how can they use new technologies to streamline their business process, and compete with their business customer, the competitors, right? So we're not just picking the wrong things from this process. Not really policing, but also helping them. Helping them as well. I don't like in auditors always looking at trying to find out what are the things that you guys do wrong but not really that. You do something called IT advisory. That means how they can use streamline, the new business processes, new technologies to compete better with the competitors and be more productive. Yeah. Because we serve different clients and different companies, we can share our knowledge and experience with our clients in terms of how they can improve and enhance the existing practice so that they can really compete with their competitors as well. So it's really important. It's survival is the most important things in a competitive environment like today, right? Yes. So I think we all do have a very good understanding now. At least difference between we should thank to Gloria for giving us a good understanding and, of course, try to understand the main difference between financial auditing and IT auditing. Thanks, Gloria. Thank you.