Hi guys, welcome back again. In this video we are going to look at system maintenance practices. What does system maintenance mean? Think about it. System maintenance means making some change to the system, to make it better. That is what we call system maintenance. Even if you buy a package, or if you buy the Microsoft package or SAP. those are very expert system developers, but still those packages need to make some changes all the time. System maintenance is extremely important. Why do we want to do it? Because we want to make system better, system seldom remains static. As I mentioned to you, it could be in-house development, it could be package, it could be customized for you guys. No matter whatever it is, maintenance is extremely important part of the system. But later on we are going to talk about some very important issues here. If you outsource your system development process, maintenance could be a little bit challenging to you guys. Because, you may be living in US, the developers could be from India. They would develop systems and they would come to US and implement it, and they go back to India. If there's any problem found in your system, do they have time to fly back to US all the time? I don't think so. That's going to be challenging of the system development. That's something you guys need to think about. How we do that? In the next slide, we look at it. Who will request a system maintenance practice? Who will have interaction with the system? That is, the users who use the system. Who are the possible users that will make a request to change the system? It could be senior management. It could be staff in your organization. It could be a client to your organization. It could be a customer. Or it could be internal auditor or external auditor who would come and audit your system, make some recommendations and request some maintenance. The next slide. How do we make this request? In large organizations, they do have procedures of system maintenance. Do you have any idea how we do it? Yes, they do have a request form. The larger organizations prepared beforehand a specific form, mostly online form. Whoever would want to request any change to the system, they go to the online form and they fill it. What kind of information that you'll see there? Your name, the date, and why you want to have the change. That means you find something, you find a problem with the system, or you want a new feature to the system, or you think that, I prefer to have Spanish as the interface, whatever the reasons that we have. At the same time you should let the IT people know, what are the expected benefits? As well as it's important here. IT department may receive many, many requests in a given period of time. At the end of the day, they need to prioritize it. Which one is higher? Which one is lower? According to your understanding, according to your expectations, what is the priority for this new system development? That's something you might need to inform them as well. Users fill in the forms and submit the form to the IT department. What IT department do is to review those forms and decide, they do prioritize based on their own judgment. Of course they would take whatever you mentioned into account It's very important here. What are system maintenance practices? We do have basically four maintenance practices. Corrective, adaptive, perfective, and preventive. Now, I would like you to think about it. Remember, we looked at similar words before, which are controls. But controls and maintenance are different to each other. I would like you to think about it. What is the connection between controls and the maintenance that we have discussed before? In the past we talked about preventative control, detective control and corrective control. Now we're talking about the maintenance: corrective, adaptive, perfective and preventive. Are they related? How are they related? It's something that I would like you guys to think about. Now it's time for us to look at one by one. What does a corrective maintenance mean? I think it's very easy to judge, right? We find a problem within the system and then we rectify that. That is what we call corrective maintenance, Find a problem with the system, we fix it. That's a correction. Then we have adaptive maintenance. What does adaptive maintenance mean? Adaptive maintenance means you should add in a new feature or capability to systems producing outputs. Users and management would like to have new features to the system. That's called adaptive maintenance. Let's go on. Now let's look at perfective maintenance. What does perfective maintenance mean? Perfective maintenance, we don't make any change to the system capability, but we simply make system much more efficient and user friendly. In the next video I'm going to talk to you guys some examples to explain better what does exactly perfective maintenance mean. Please keep watching the video so that you will have a better understanding. Especially next one, I'm going to talk to you guys about some scenarios. What is preventive maintenance? Is it similar to the preventative controls? We would like to prevent maybe hacking into the systems or adding the features to that. Those are four different kinds of maintenance we have. Now I would like you guys to think about, as I mentioned to you before, IT department receives many maintenance requests in a given period of time. So they have to prioritize them. In general, which maintenance should come before the others? Can you guys spend about one minute? Think about it and write down 1,2,3,4 based on what you think, which one should come first? Which one should come second, third and fourth? Which one is first? I think that you got it right. The first one is corrective maintenance. Because correcting a problem has to be your priority. What's the next one? I think you got it right as well. That is preventive maintenance. Then students always find it difficult to find no.3 and no.4. Which one should come first? No.3 should come adaptive and no.4 is perfective. Because the perfective maintenance, we do not make any changes to system capability, we make system more user friendly. This is something that we need to look into lastly. Now let's look at the how the system maintenance costs change. We have two lines, cost and time. Time starts at zero when you implement system. Soon after you implemented system, time clock starts. How does this maintenance cost change? I would like to think about a minute and draw this graph. First maintenance cost starts very high and comes down. Does it come down to zero? That means there's no maintenance at all for the system? I don't think so. The next step would be, the system is stable now. We find some problem to the system and we fix those, and the system is stable now, for some time. What's happening? Is it going to be stable forever? Now, at the last stage, it's going to go up. Let's see why is it going to go up. We're going to look at it next. First of all I put A and B. In other words, what kind of maintenance that we mostly do at A? As well as what kind of maintenance we mostly do at B? What do you think? Soon after system has been implemented, what kind of maintenance we always do? Remember, before we implemented system, we did a lot of testing. But real test is when you use the system. When you use the system, you might find problems, you might find bugs within system. So at the beginning, at the early stage, we do a lot of corrective maintenance. After some time we have done corrective maintenance, system is going to be stable now. Now, tell me, what is going to be at B? B is the latest stage of the system usage, then mostly about adaptive maintenance. Remember, by the time that we developed system, we communicated with the users and got the requirement to our system. We have done it, users told us what are the features they need. Now it's already about five years, maybe ten years passed. Now it's very possible that users would like to have additional features to the system, additional capabilities to the system, so they might submit adaptive maintenance. Now the cost is going to be up and up. Now it's a judgment for you guys, are we keep adding whatever the users request? Now this is a good indication that having a lot of adaptive maintenance to the system rather than adding one by one to your whole system. This is an indication now. This is time for us to think about developing new system, adding all the features that they would like to have into new system. That is the time to think about it.