Welcome back and thank you for your continued effort. In part two, like in part one, you'll want to use your review worksheet to help you get the most out of this lesson. In this video we're going to consider an ethical issue. Then, we're going to practice language that signals contrast and addition when describing information in a graph. After that, we're going to review possible question types for negotiating in each stage of the win-win process. Finally, we'll think about ways to improve our reading. So, let's start with an imagined situation where you are keeping the books for a small retail company with three stores. The manager gets bonuses based on how well he manages his budget. After analyzing his budget from January to April, you realize that some of his budgeted items seem padded or higher than what is reasonably expected. You want to understand why, so you schedule a meeting. When you're ready to discuss the issue, how would you begin? Would you begin by accusing him of intentionally overestimating his expenses? [LAUGH] Of course you wouldn't. So, how would you open this discussion? To know how to begin, ask yourself what your purpose is. Is your purpose to understand why the budget is so much higher than the actual expenses? That's the question to start with. It's neutral, without any negative assumptions. You're more likely to have an open and honest communication. Let's say that the manager was padding his budget, intentionally overestimating costs to look better to the executive team. Why would he do this? He would do this because in his company his ability to manage his budget affects his bonus. In this case, he puts his personal interest ahead of the company's. Would you say that this practice shows integrity or a high ethical standard? Why not take the end video poll, so we can see what the majority of learners believe. Now this might be a good opportunity to work through a win-win process. I'm trying to remember all the steps to follow when negotiating a win-win. Will you listen to me and tell me which step I'm missing? I know the first step is to listen to each other, to clarify how each person views the issue. I can't remember the second step. What? Did you say make goal statements? How could I forget? The second step has two parts, making individual goal statements and boiling it down to one goal. So that you can negotiate a solution that supports that goal. Take the in-video quiz to show that you know all the stages in the process and to remind yourself of the probing questions for negotiating in each stage. I hope you found that in-video quiz a useful review. Now, would you please look at the chart called budget versus actual month? What months did you go over budget? March, July, August, and September. Can you use although, while, and whereas to contrast what you budgeted with your actual expenses? Let's do one together. Although you budgeted $105,000, your actual expenses were $160,000. Now, using the same chart, use furthermore, moreover, or in addition to add to that statement. Let's do one together. In addition, in March and July, the actuals were higher than the budgeted amount. While we've been focusing on communicating information, now you're going to think about staying current on trends. Find the podcast for the National Public Radio article called E-commerce is a Bright Spot in China's Economy. Just based on this title, can you predict what you're going to find out or learn? Listen to the article or download the transcript. What strategies will you use to understand this article quickly? So, what are the key takeaways of this review video? There are key phrases to use when negotiating a win-win solution. Such as, could you explain how you see this issue or what is your most important concerns? What do I need? What do I want? What can I live with? And then, what do we both need, want, and what can we live with? What are the advantages or disadvantages of? Using although, while, whereas, are useful for contrasting information on charts, especially when explaining variances. Transition words are helpful signals for the listener. When adding to your points, three useful words are furthermore, in addition, and moreover. Being honest when dealing with budgets and forecasts shows integrity. And finally, key strategies for gathering information from texts are, predicting what information is going to be learned from titles, headings, charts, and graphs. Scan for words and numbers that jump out at you and seem to be important. Ask yourself what you want to learn from the article, then scan for that information. Skim the article to get the general idea. Can you believe we've almost finished the review of this entire course? Can you believe all that you've accomplished? Right now, as we're nearly finished, I have mixed emotions. On the one hand, I'm happy, I'm really happy that you've accomplished so much. But on the other hand, I'm sad to see you go. Hopefully, we'll meet again in English for Marketing and Sales. Thank you for your participation in English for Finance and Economics, and I wish you all good things.