Hello everyone! Welcome back. Wherever you are, I hope that all of you are having a great day. In this video, we'll talk about analyzing the learning task with a particular focus on learning goals and learning outcomes. Going back to Addie, task analysis is a very important step within the analysis stage and instructional design. More specifically, task analysis is one of the activities of Instructional Analysis. Task analysis requires a set of steps to complete and we'll mainly be looking at the first two steps in this video. This is Smith and Ragan model and analyzing learning task as part of our analysis phase. Here's the topic list for this video. We'll first identify and state an appropriate learning goal. Second, once we come up with the learning goal statement, then we will identify the learning outcome that the learning goal consists of. Let's look at this figure. As you might recall from prior videos, we have talked about the instructional design project start from needs. That needs often can be seen as a form of problem. During the needs assessment, we try to understand and refine the problem that our clients have presented and only when the reasons for the problem or due to deficits in knowledge skills and attitude, design and development efforts for a new instruction are justified. We'll put all the information together to create a description of the problem and a list of goals that need to be achieved to solve the problem. In conducting task analysis, the first step that we need to do is to write a learning goal statement. When we write a learning goal statement, we need to addressed directly performance and learning problems, focus on the big picture of knowledge gain, skill development, and change in ability and attitude. Here's one example problem statement and I would like us to think about potential learning goals together. So, the problem identified here is that the sales performance of a car dealership has been lagging since 2016. In that case, what will be the possible reasons, and what kinds of learning goals can solve this problem? Perhaps this particular problem happened due to lack of the latest product knowledge, or lack of selling skills of those sales personnel. Or it could even be due to a lack of reproductive company culture. The point here is that the reasons an organization encounters certain problems can be pretty diverse in terms of learning domains. During the needs assessment, instruction designer should identify them and prioritize which one or which ones should be the primary focus of the instruction. Moving on, let's look at the second example. The enrollment volume of an online degree program has been decreasing since 2016. In terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes, can you think about what could possibly cause this particular problem. The problem perhaps happen due to lack of knowledge about marketing strategies for this particular program. Perhaps due to lack of skills in providing optimal service to those perspective students. Or it could be lack of perceived value of this program within the organization. Again, the reasons for the problem can be varying therefore different learning goals can be generated. Shall we do one more? As you can see, on this slide the problem here is the communication. The communication among employees is ineffective. Well, this is pretty broad and you will probably need to speak more with the client to see what they mean by ineffective communication. In this case, the learning goals could potentially your dress, lack of knowledge about effective communication, and standardize communication protocol within the organization, or considering that, a lot of communication happens in a technology mediated way. This problem could be due to lack of skills in utilizing relevant technologies for facilitating the communication. Or it could be due to workplace incivility or a pretty rigid culture within this organization. I hope that was a pretty good practice. Let's try think backward. So, here's an example of a learning goal. HR managers are capable of identifying inappropriate questions that should not be included in the interviews. This is a pretty unambiguous and specific to clearly guide our design effort. The scope of the learning goal is pretty focused. If we have come up with this learning goal, what problems might have caused for us to think about this learning goal? The problem could have been there have been too many litigations from job applicants. Let's try one more. Staff nurses at a hospital can efficiently prepare pre-operational patients who were about to undergo surgery. With disorienting goal, we get the focus of the training that we'll be developing. So, what problems might have caused for us to think about this learning goal? A potential problem could have been increasing cost of the surgery department for the past few years and the hospital wants to reduce that cost. So far, we have looked at examples of performance problems and how learning goals for new instructions and trainings can be derived in order to address those problems. We have tried to look at those learning goals from the perspective of knowledge, skills, and attitude. When we make goals, it's important to think about types of learning outcomes. There are different ways to classify that. In a broad sense, this is one general way to categorize the learning outcome. That is as belonging to the cognitive domain, psychomotor domain, and affective domain. More specifically, when unidentified problem happens because of a lack of knowledge, then the learning is likely to focus on the cognitive aspect. It is about I don't know it type of situation. If one identify problem occurs due to lack of skills, then the learning is likely to focus on psychomotor domain. It is about an cannot do it type of situation. Lastly, if the identified problem is due to lack of necessary attitudes to make choices or lack of desire or fear about using new knowledge or skill, such as I won't do it type of situation, then the learning should focus more on the effective aspect. In reality, often the goals addressed some kind of combination of these three domains. This is another way of categorizing learning outcomes. This is Robert Ragan classification. As you can see, there are five types of learning outcomes. First, verbal information or as we call it a declarative knowledge. Intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes, and psychomotor skills. Here's an in video question. Why do you think about types of warning? Please select all that apply. First, to decide the forms of learning assessment. Second, to decide the appropriate instructional strategies. Third, to identify subordinate skills. Fourth, to identify the needs of the instruction. Fifth, all of the above. Why do we need to identify types of learning? Analyzing, learning task by considering, the types of learning outcome is not a simple task. Can we just come up with a few important learning objectives and just start designing instruction? Well, there are a number of important advantages in identifying types of learning. First, it helps us to try to clarify our thinking and improve the process of writing, what the desired learning outcomes of this new instruction are. Second, it helps us to identify important prerequisites or or what some people call subordinate skills of the primary Information processing steps. Third, it helps us to write learning objectives. Fourth, it also helps us to write relevant assessments of the instruction. Finally, it helps us to determine appropriate instructional strategies. The bottom three, are particularly important ones. Because, in instructional design, the congruency among what we want the learners to achieve in the instruction, how we help them to get there, and how we ensure that effective learning happen, is extremely critical. Okay. Now, let's see Gagne's, five types of learning outcomes one by one. First is declarative knowledge or what we call verbal information. This is basically knowing that type of learning as we learn to list, recall, state, and recite things and facts. Examples of this learning outcome could be, listing all kinds of dinosaurs, stating symptoms of their different stages of Parkinson's disease. In most cases, this type of verbal information is not necessarily the final learning goal of an instruction, even for novice learners. But often, serves as the very basic prerequisite knowledge for instruction. The next one, is intellectual skills. This is probably the most basic and pervasive structure of formal education that we experience. Unlike declarative knowledge, intellectual skills, consists of a hierarchical structure of sub-components. Such as, discriminations, concepts, rules and principles, and problem-solving. Those sub-components serve as building blocks civil learning. So that, learners can achieve a higher level of intellectual skills. We'll get back to that later. Intellectual skills mostly deals with a person's capability of doing something; such as, doing things with symbols, putting things into categories, apply rules and principle, and solving problems. First, discrimination is the smallest sub-component or building block of learning higher level of intellectual skills. As you can tell from its name, it means you can distinguish or differentiate one thing from another. Determine whether something matches or differs from other things. Examples of discriminations are, you can find a match tiger from a group of animal images, or you can find almond among several kinds of nuts. Concepts, are the next in the intellectual skills hierarchy. In learning concepts, we'll be able to identify, recognize, or categorize, previously un-encountered examples and non-examples of specific ideas, objects or events. We can do that, because we understand the essence of that particular concept in common. More simply speaking, if we know a concept, we can tell whether a particular idea, object, or event is an example of that concept. There are two types of concepts. Concrete concepts are the things that we can point to or easily classify. So, for example; automobiles, microphones, teachers, jackets. Those are examples of concrete concepts. Defined concepts are more abstract ideas. But we can come up with definitions for them by describing their essential characteristics. So, what is motivation? What is learning? What is teaching? Those motivation, learning, teaching, those are examples of defined concepts. We cannot really point to these concepts right, but we can define what they are, and by doing so, we can tell, what is motivation? What it is not motivation? What is learning? What is not learning? What is teaching? What is not teaching? There are some examples of concept learning. Identifying a beaker from a set of laboratory equipment. For us to be able to do that, we should know the essential attributes of a beaker. Another one, categorizing different vehicles. For us to do things like this, we should first know what vehicles are, and the essential attributes of each type of vehicle. The next ones are, rules and principles. When we learn rules and principles, we should be able to identify, the order of certain steps and apply them. Also considering the situation, you can decide and apply appropriate rules and principles. Knowing the rules and principles, you understand and explain the phenomena. So, you can predict what will happen, explain why certain things happen, and control the environment? Here are some examples of rules and principle learning. By understanding rules, and principles of temperature and water, you can predict the effects of temperature change on water. Also by understanding the rules and principles applicable to house purchasing, you can determine the relevant price range of a house that your family can afford. The last one in the hierarchy of intellectual skills, is problem solving. When we learn problem-solving, we should be able to assess a problem situation, determine applicable rules, apply them accurately, and evaluate if the problem has been solved in a relevant way. Some examples of problem solving learning include, writing a research proposal to be submitted to a conference, conducting a market research, and developing a survey instrument. As you can see from these examples, accomplishing these activities will require a number of different intellectual skills. This particular figure, illustrates the hierarchical structure as well as, levels of complexity in intellectual skills. So, on the very top, a problem-solving activity. Learning problem-solving and that involves the formation of rules and principles as prerequisites. Then, for us to be able to use those rules and principles, we should also know the prerequisite concepts that are related to those rules and principles. Finally, for us to learn those concepts, we should need to know the associated discriminations. Cognitive strategies are kind of specialized intellectual skills, for governing and managing our own learning, and remembering, and thinking our behavior. Examples of cognitive strategies could be, using an image link to learn a foreign language equivalent to an English word, inventing a way to remember the names and responsibilities of all the units within the organization. Let's see psychomotor skills. Learning psychomotor skills include, motor skills, that must be physically trained and practiced. By doing so, we learn how to execute new muscular activities smoothly, and also accurately with precise timing. Some examples include, ice skating and also operating an excavator. The last domain is, attitudes. Attitude is basically your mental state that predisposes us to choose, to behave, in a certain way. So, added to learning is about learning to choose to perform behavior in an appropriate context. After learning, you can choose to do the right behavior or you can avoid doing the wrong behavior. Some examples include, choosing to settle arguments with negotiation, choosing to design a personal dietary plan to improve your health. Okay. Let's sum up this lecture with a reality check. In this lecture, we looked at the first two steps in analyzing the learning task. When writing the learning goal statement, please keep in mind that we need to provide a clear description of what the learners will be doing when they perform the goal. The goal statement is not about what learners will do, or the instructors will teach during the instruction. In other words, a learning goal statement is neither a description of the learning activities nor the learning content. People often get confused when they actually start to right the learning goal, Second, when you design an instruction, you will see a lot of learning goals tend to be intellectual skills. But there are often complex goals involving multiple domains. For example, often the goals might include both affective and intellectual skills, such as, being motivated to plan healthy meals. Or the goals include both affective and psychomotor skill, such as being motivated to swim regularly. Of course, there could be different kinds of combination. For more study on this topic, please refer to the references at the end of the video. Thank you.