Instructional design is a collection of creative activities based on scientific foundations. In this section, we're going to look at learning theories as frameworks for us to understand the origins of those scientific foundations that support instructional design processes and decision making. In terms of learning theory, in this section, we're going to cover, first of all, what is learning? Second, what is learning theory? Third, major camps of learning theories. Fourth, what's the relationship between learning theories and instructional design? Finally, we're going to talk about in reality, what might be the value of learning theories for instructional designers. The purpose of instructional design is linking proven learning theories and instructional theories to achieve measurable and desired learning or performance outcomes. As shown in this illustration, instructional system design will connect input, means, and results together for effective learning, or performance solutions. In terms of input information such as learners characteristics, learners prior learning experiences, those are good elements for us to understand which learning theories will be appropriate, which instructional theories will be feasible in order to develop solutions for learning and performance improvement. The result part is pretty straightforward, and mostly is relevant to the needs of the organizational learning or the expectation of your clients. What is learning? Learning is a process enacted by learners that enables them to attend measurable and persisting change of performance according to their modified knowledge, skill set, and abilities, upon interacting with elements in various learning environments. There are a couple keywords in this statement. First one is the persisting change of performance. Those performance also needs to be observable, therefore, we can measure them. The second sets of keywords would be knowledge, skills, and abilities. Those are common categories for instructional designers to conceptualize the potential outcome of the instructional solutions. Finally, is the elements in learning environments. The elements will include peer learners, will include instructors, will include resources online, all those are eligible elements within learning environments. What is learning theory? We have some understanding in terms of what learning is. Learning theories are positioned to explain why and how learning happens across contexts, across populations, across cultures. Learning theories also will provide foundations to help us understand how human learning evolves through time, through major societal events. Finally, learning theories will provide conceptual and empirical frameworks for instructional design, and its adaptations and advancement. Basically we can see learning theories as a constantly evolving foundation in order to inform the best practice of instructional design. What are the components of learning theories? First one is the results. What are changes in performance to be explained by the theory? What are the intended learning outcomes? The second component is the means. What are the processes that generate those results? What are the conditions that need to be met for generating those results? The third component is the input. What might trigger those processes to occur? Such as learners prior experiences, such as available resources within the learning environment. Learning theories have their philosophical roots, namely, constructivism, rationalism, and empiricism. Combining with system thinking, cognitivism, behaviorism, and communications, we're able to devise instructional methods, instructional conditions, therefore, achieving intended learning and instructional outcomes. The philosophical roots of learning also helps us understand how knowledge could be acquired. From the perspective of constructivism, it is important to allow learners interact with other elements within the learning environment. Basically the knowledge is constructed by a learner himself or herself. Learner has to be active, learning is all about meaning making, learning needs to be collaborative, learning has to include peers input, and learning has to be situated in realistic settings. In terms of rationalism, the focus is inward. In particular, how individual learners reason, how individual learners rationalize during the learning process. The knowledge in this context will be acquired through reasoning and intuitive deduction. Interacting with others, interacting with other elements within the environment doesn't seem as important as the ones happened in a constructive learning environment. With regard to empiricism, the focus is on how learners experience the reality by themselves. Learners sensory experiences dominate the learning process, what they hear, what they see, what they touch, they are the important parts of the learning experience.