(Kurita)Hello, everyone. Hello, everyone. (Students)Hello. (Kurita)This is “Interactive Teaching” WEEK 4. This week’s topic is “Let’s design a 90–minute class”. This is one of the two sessions on the significance of class design and the ADDIE model. Before we get into the main topic, let me clarify the goal of this week: “Understand the design, significance, and methods of implementing a class that promotes learning”. This is the goal. The first two are the objectives for this session: “Be able to explain the significance of class design” and “Be able to explain the workflow of design using the ADDIE model”. We will be halfway through the topic, but these are the objectives for the two sessions. Here is the table of all the contents for the two sessions. We will cover the first four components in this session. We shall begin with the significance of design, then move on to the ADDIE model, followed by a discussion on two factors of the model: analysis and design. Let us begin with the significance of design. First of all, let me clarify the distinction between the two terms frequently used in this course: course and class. A “course” refers to all the classes conducted in a semester. A whole series of classes forms a course. Fifteen sessions are given 90 minutes per unit and each of them is called a “class". In Japanese, we often apply the same term jugyo for both class and course, so I would like to reassure you that there is a clear distinction between the two. In this session, we are going to focus on designing a 90-minute “class”. Please confirm what it means. What is the significance of designing a 90-minute class? Let’s think about that. What are the benefits of designing a class instead of just coming into the classroom and simply chatting and winding up on whatever you want? Think about it for a while, and then let’s move on to, “Think-Pair-Share". I will ask you to form pairs later on, so first, think by yourself. I will give you a minute. OK, please form pairs and share your idea on the significance of designing class. Let’s get started. Are you all done? OK, what do you think, Kaneko-san? (Student)Yes. Speaking of the significance of designing a class, I think you will be able to cover the contents you are required to teach by allotting your time properly. Furthermore, by informing students of the class design, they will be able to prepare for the class and review what they learn effectively. It is also beneficial for delivering the same class in the following year. (Kurita)Thank you. I think there are still other ideas on the significance, but let me summarize them. As Kaneko-san mentioned, the first point is the efficient use of class time. It will not be, “speaking off the cuff”, so you will be able to cover the contents that you set as an objective beforehand. The second point is the systematic use of instructional methods. As we learned before, some of the Active Learning methods need deliberate design. You cannot immediately use such methods without preparation; you can only use them after incorporating them in a design. The third point is that it makes it easier to improve the class for the following year, as Kaneko-san mentioned. This benefits instructors. The fourth point is also beneficial for instructors; it makes it easier to share knowledge and skills. A design is usually visible, so it can be shared by other instructors as a reference. A carefully designed class can become a university’s common property. These points also help students prepare for the class and review what they learned, as Kaneko-san mentioned. It all aids in the learning of students. These are the significances of design. Let’s move on to the meaning of the ADDIE model. The ADDIE model is one of the models for instructional design. It has no distinct sources, but is more like a rule of thumb verified by several people, and is now widely considered to be a general model for instructional design. It is not limited to instructional design; it can be used for all kinds of design. Let me explain the whole structure of the ADDIE model briefly before looking into its components. ADDIE is an abbreviation. A stands for “analysis”. If you are going to deliver a class, for example, you have to collect information and analyze the situation to figure out what is needed for the class. Then, you have to “design (D)” a class, based on the information you have collected. You are going to work on designing a 90-minute class either by pondering in your head or writing down your idea. After that, you will work on D for “development”. You are going to create materials like slides for the class. This is the stage for actually developing materials. Next comes I for “implementation”. You deliver a class following the design and using the developed materials. The next step is E for “evaluation”. How did the students respond to your class? Did they really learn from your class? Such points are evaluated at this stage. The arrow from evaluation runs toward analysis, but evaluation will be carried out if improvement is made at each stage, and improvement is made every time in all the stages, so there are actually many arrows of evaluation. So, this figure is a simplified version. Now, let us take a closer look at the procedures of these five stages in order: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The first stage is called “analysis (A)”. This is the stage of identifying the necessary components for the class design. It is also the stage for setting objectives: what you want your students to learn from the class. Suppose that you were asked to work as a part-time lecturer next year. What kind of information would you need to design a 90-minute class? Think about it for a while. If you were asked to serve as a part-time lecturer, what kind of information would you want for designing a 90-minute class? What do you think, Ozawa-san? (Student)Yes. I would like to know the number of students; I mean the size of the class. I would also want to know the style of the classroom: whether it is mainly used for lectures and has immovable desks, or whether it is suitable for activities. I would also be interested in the level, motivation, fields, and interests of the students. (Kurita)Thank you. I have summarized the points here including what Ozawa-san has mentioned. The first point is to identify the necessary components for class design. Look at the middle one. It says teaching content. This entails clarifying the scope and amount of content that needs to be taught. You often confirm this right after you are asked to teach a specific topic. Another point is, as Ozawa-san mentioned, the classroom environment. You usually cannot choose the classroom; you are mostly assigned a specific classroom. You also want to know class size. Above all, the most necessary information is the students’ abilities and prior knowledge. How is the course positioned according to the students’ level? How motivated are the students? After collecting information on these points, move on to the next stage: design. However, there is one more important procedure before that. That is the second point: to set the objectives. Covering the content required for the class, and being able to confirm whether or not the objectives are accomplished are important points in setting objectives. We will take up the issues of setting objectives in the session on syllabus and evaluation. Goals and objectives are important in every aspect and you have to set these in the analysis stage by taking care of these two points. Now that you have collected information and set the goals and objectives, let’s move on to the design stage. D stands for design. It means a specific design of teaching content. What factors are needed to design a class? There are components that you have to consider in designing a 90-minute class. Think about it for a while. Then, let me hear your thoughts, Nakamura-san. S: Yes. As you mentioned, objectives are important, I would create a plan on how to use the 90 minutes in order to accomplish the objectives within that time. If I need to incorporate group works into the class, I also have to consider the amount of time I can allot to the activities. (Kurita)Thank you. I think what you have mentioned can be categorized into timeline, structure, and work/task as shown here. These points are related to considering how to allot 90 minutes in a class. It is also important to consider how to set up the quality and quantity of teaching contents in accordance with the level of students. The instructional methods entail how to provide students with these contents. Work or tasks can be one of the methods. We would like to discuss the issues on Gagné’s nine events of instruction in the fourth session, which can be ideas for design. I would like to have another session especially to share precise information on design. We could also use another session for actually designing a 90-minute class using a class design sheet. That’s all for this session.