(Kurita)Hello, everyone. Hello, everyone. (Students)Hello. (Kurita)This is "Interactive Teaching" WEEK 4. This week's topic is "Let's design a 90-minute class". This is the second half of the two sessions on the significance of class design and the ADDIE model. As usual, before we begin the main topic, let me clarify the goal of this week: "Understand the design, significance, and methods of implementing a class that promotes learning". We covered the first objective in the last session: "Be able to explain the significance of class design". So, the objective for this session is: "Be able to explain the workflow of design by using the ADDIE model". Here is the table of contents. We covered the first half of the ADDIE model in the previous session, so in this session, we shall learn about the rest of the ADDIE model: development, implementation, and evaluation. Then, we shall wrap-up. Let us begin with a quick review of the ADDIE model. The ADDIE model is a model for instructional design and is an abbreviation composed of the first letter of each of five processes: A, D, D, I, and E. It is one of the most popular designs or models for instructional design. The letter A stands for analysis. This stage involves collecting information for class design and setting goals and objectives. It is followed by the design stage which entails designing the teaching contents. The next stage, development, entails developing materials. The final stages are implementation and evaluation, after which the next class design begins. The model comprises a sequence like this. The evaluation is divided into two: small-scale evaluation for each stage and large-scale evaluation for the entire process (all the stages). Back and forth processes such as analysis and design, and improvement occur between stages. We covered analysis and design in the last session, so today, we shall begin with development. The second D in ADDIE stands for development. This stage entails preparing and creating what you are going to actually use in the class, such as learning materials, by following the design made in the preceding stage. At this stage something is actually created instead of merely having thoughts in the head. In fact, in some fields, just thinking can literally account for development, but in other fields you need to distinguish thinking from creating. What kind of development is required in a class in your field? Your fields vary, so I imagine what you would do at the development stage would differ. Think about it for a while. What kind of development would be needed? Let me ask some of you. How about you, Kaneko-san? (Student)Well, my field is architecture, so I would prepare and show parts used in the field, such as the metallic parts used for a lumber joint. (Kurita)You are going to prepare material. I see. Thank you. Preparing real objects. Is there anyone who would prepare real objects to show? (Student)My field is psychology, so if the class's content is highly specialized, I would need to illustrate instruments for psychological testing. (Kurita)I see. There are materials like building blocks used for developmental assessment. Thank you. I think preparing such things makes it easier for you to understand what development is. Besides real objects to show, preparing presentation materials such as slides creating with presentation software, as I do for this class, and making notes to write on the blackboard can also be considered to be development. Preparing handouts is also development. What Kaneko-san mentioned can be classified here: reference materials, models, and real objects. These are needed for development. Now, you are ready to learn about implementation. I from ADDIE model stands for implementation. This is the stage of actually carrying out a class. There are several points to take care of during implementation. The first point concerns delivery. It involves how an educator should deliver what they have designed and implemented to students. For example, will you look at your notes and give a monologue, or come closer to the students? Factors such as how you use your voice and how you involve students are very important for communication and are necessary for students' effective learning. The second point is to check the comprehension level of students at all times. You design in advance, but you should check if students really understand what you deliver by examining their responses. Sometimes, students seem totally overwhelmed and lost, so in that case, what you should do is not to stick to the design, but to change your plan flexibly, which is the third point. For example, if I found out that the term I unintentionally use daily seemed to be incomprehensible to students, I would add an explanation of that term. You must take care of what you can do to cope with the students' reactions during implementation. So, this stage has to do with what measures you can take in response to the occurrence of unanticipated real-time situation. After implementation, move on to the evaluation stage. The last letter E, on ADDIE, stands for evaluation. This stage involves the inspection of a series of analysis, design, development, and implementation. As I showed you in the figure at the beginning of the class, there are small-scale evaluations made at each stage and a large-scale evaluation made on the entire process (all the stages) before embarking on the next 90-minute class or the same class in the following year. How do you evaluate? When you are done with the implementation of your class, who would you ask to judge if your class was good or bad. How do you collect information and how do you evaluate? How would you go about it, Hodrigo-san? (Student)In a class at the university, I think I would have my students do student ratings, so in that case, the evaluators would be my students. I would also self-evaluate and think of how to improve my class. (Kurita)Thank you. Yes, as he mentioned, the first method is self-evaluation. You reflect on the class and determine whether or not it was good. The second method is student ratings. Students (learners) examine whether they really learned from the class. Student ratings are conducted in most universities nowadays. The final method is third-party evaluation. This term is often used to refer to the assessment of universities, but in this case, it refers to the evaluation carried out by your colleague, for example, by having him/her observe your class and tell you what they thought about it. If there is a special department for faculty development which advise faculty members on their teaching skills, you can have an expert on faculty development observe and evaluate your class by consulting from them. Those are the three evaluation methods. We have seen analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation, a sequential process of structuring a class. You collect information, come up with a design, create materials, implement, and evaluate. These arrows show the cycle of the class from design to evaluation. And especially, this arrow, the evaluation that leads to the next class is important. It is usually easy to proceed from analysis to implementation smoothly, but the evaluation process and transition to the next step are often interrupted. A very important point I would like you to learn today is to make a complete circle by linking all the stages. We call it, "closing the loop". Close the loop and make use of it for the next class to further improve the class. We have learned what the ADDIE model is today. Please be sure to close the loop when using this model. Now, let’s wrap up. There are five components of the ADDIE model. A stands for analysis. The first D stands for design. The second D stands for development. I stands for implementation. E stands for evaluation. These five make a circle in that order. It is important to proceed to the evaluation stage and link it to the improvement of the next class in order to close the loop. I would like you to remember what we learned today about the ADDIE model and the phrase “close the loop”. That’s all for this session.