So we know that A is the tonic king, but what is E, the note that's a fifth away from A? What is that? Probably E is what we call a dominant. Dominant or a triad built on E, we call it the dominant triad. It's like a prime minister to the king who is the most important person next to the king although he reports to the tonic. So he's appointed by the king but does more work than the king himself, he appears more often. More importantly, appearance of a dominant not only tells us which key we are in now, because when we have the dominant, we know which key is. Also we know the king, the tonic can never be far behind. For the first two notes of this symphony, of the melody are A and E, the tonic, and the dominant. Yeah. This idea is echoed in the baseline. Look at the baseline, I'm going to play this 10 [inaudible] again. You're going to follow the scope, just follow the baseline. You have this A, and it goes to G sharp, and a G natural, F sharp, and F natural, E, back to F natural, and then stay on the E for a longtime. See, you'll notice it's A to E just like the first two those in the top. But this time they're filled in with a chromatic scale. He harmonized his chromatic a descending scale. Harmonize means adds chords to it. He build chords on it. Now, you have and then, and then goes and then we have that. So what is the significance of this? When is the he echoes the first two lobes in the melody and it goes to the base note, but the feeling was a chromatic scale. Secondly, is we notice that he borrowed this chords we talked about in example one, C major triad, F major triad that doesn't belong. They're not a natural chords for A major but they are the A minor natural chords, so belongs with brothers. So the king feels comfortable wherever he needs, whenever he takes from his brothers property, he borrows them or just possess them. This is the one thing. The other thing we notice is in order to make certain chords important, he added the five, the dominant of these chords, right before it. So in other words, in order to, for example, at the fourth chord is a D major chord and the first inversion. But before that, you had a third of the chord which is the five, the dominance of D major and goes to D major. Then the next chord. This chord is the five dominant or dominant of C major. Then use the C major as the dominant of the F major. Now, what is that? That is in order to promote some chords to make it important and to make those chords to be the center of attention for a short while. So he would by adding a dominant chord right before off that key. So in other words, this is a between in-between a modulation we talked about. Modulation that means you have no full scales of triads to build on the scale. Then you scale. But this is only adding one little dominant chord. It's temporarily important. Temporary chord. So it's not really a modulation. It's like a tonicization. Yeah, we call it tonicization which is a fancy word that you can't find in the dictionary. Makes any particular triad, a tonic chord temporarily by giving it its own dominant promotes it that way. Yeah. So he does this a few times. You'll see he did this. So therefore, let me play this again for you to just get into your ears how this chromatic scale and goes to five, and then that he stays for a while in the five. But now let's see what he does when he reaches the five. So I'm going to play on the piano which will try to imitate the orchestra, and then see what happens when he reaches the five dominant. We say that dominant goes to the tonic, bows to the tonic. So dominant there finally you get a measure 15, you get into the A major again. Where you have the A major again, he repeats this chromatic still A to E. But this time he goes to the E, when he reaches the E, he just stays there. But then follow the baseline and these chords.