[MUSIC] How did we get so far so quickly? Writing, religious concepts, a unified state, a national government, all have come into being, to some extent, even earlier than 3100 BCE. Clearly, these concepts did not appear all at once. But were developing over a long period of time. As the unified state took form, so did the role of the king. It became defined for both the perceived world in which the ruler would exist with the gods. As well as the secular, or actual world, where both the king and humankind existed. His duties and responsibilities extended from the local level to the national level, and then international, perhaps to instill legitimacy to his position. A parallel storyline was devised, wherein the ruler had an association with, and an existence, among the gods. It was incumbent on him to state clearly his divine link and the icons that I've shown you, like the serekh, the cartouche, the crowns and the titles. All were indications of the higher and distinct place the king now had in the hierarchy of humankind, royalty and deities. For the state, the king was the head of the government, and the entire administration of the country was under his charge. He structured a framework headed by officials. Which evolved, eventually, into a bureaucracy. These roles were taken on, not by the clerics, whose functioned in a different, but also structured environment under the king, but by secular administrators whose titles would reflect their responsibilities. Often, such individuals received recognition through gifts of the gold of honor from the king. The title of vizier was Tjaty in ancient Egyptian. And Rekhmire was one of the most important of these officials. As commander in chief, pharaoh fought at the head of his army. And we can see that in several examples here in the museum. Also, he presided over the recording of the spoils, and that is shown in several different temples. On earth, he was the high priest of every god. And the fact that both he, and the deities, had similar features indicate their closeness. Similarly, the king and his subjects often have a similar look, and we can see that in the private and the royal statues. In these roles, and by his conduct and deeds, he acted in keeping with a complex doctrine before both the gods and the people. Maintaining this performance ensured that the world would function properly, according to a prescribed order that we sometimes call decorum. The Egyptians called it Maat. It was a concept that they deified. Thus the state roles he executed had cosmic significance, and linked him directly with the divine, as well as the actual world. His appropriate behavior as king would ensure the balance necessary to make the world of humankind function. This was a necessary constant that guaranteed the continuity of both the actual and the perceived world. When the king offers Maat to the gods, representations either in two or three dimensions. It shows his ability to maintain divine order. The environment, in which the gods lived, also had a hierarchy and it had many parallels to that of humankind. Both had a supreme power at it's head. Some high officials at its side, and others of varied levels in the chain of command. So what happened on earth, also occurred in the divine world. Similar organization existed in all levels of Egyptian society. That is, from the gods to the pharaoh, from pharoah to the nomarchs, who were the district governors. And then from these district governors to the elite, from the father of the family to the rest of the members of the family. The concept of duality permeated Egyptian ideology, and kingship was no exception. There was an office, as well as an individual, who inhabited that office. The office was a divine constant, it always existed, it always would. However the individual in it ,who by birth, position, or power ascended the throne became divine through the ritual of coronation. Once in position, that king would represent the eternal nature of the office and become identified as the king who always had and always would exist. Perhaps, this idea underlies a royal practice that is not infrequent. That is, a reigning pharaoh often ordered monuments and statuary of a predecessor to be appropriated and re-carved in his image, with his name and titulary.