[MUSIC] Of all the characters that I've ever run into, or read about. Picasso, Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Isaac Newton, Einstein. There are two that stand out in my mind. To Leonardo Da Vinci and Mozart. Fascinating personalities, and geniuses of the short that you just can't understand. You can't fathom how they did what they did. And Mozart is very special. I think he's the most interesting of all characters to stud because he was just that, a real character, an endlessly fascinating personality. And we know a lot about Mozart because, fortunately, he lived in an age before emails and text messages that we could delete. He was a very social creature, a real party animal. And he liked to communicate, he liked to communicate in his music, and you like to communicate in prose. And to do so in the 18th century you had to write letters. And he did, more than 600 of them surviving. Flowing between him and members of his family, mostly with his father. Now Beethoven is a special piece of work too, another character. But if you wanna study a genius Mozart is the mother lode of genius. Genius as prodigy, genius as creator. A genius who burned bright and then died young. That was Mozart. But let's start. Let's take a look at his life. Here's a map of Salzburg. Then a city of about 20,000. Today a city of more than ten times that number. Owing mostly to Mozart and the Salzburg festival and all the people that come there, and the commerce that it supports. So, let's take a tour here, through Mozart's life. Here's the Mozart's, Mozart Birthhouse, as you see there in Salzburg, up in third floor, there. And I'm going to point out here, nearby, only about two blocks away, is the famous St. Peter's Abbey, and those of you who are fans of The Sound of Music, that's where Maria was actually a nun at one point, was a Benedictine house. Anyway, let's stay on point here with Mozart. Mozart was a child prodigy, and you see here a minuet, Minuetto del Signoro [FOREIGN] Mozart 16 December 1761. So he was five years old when he wrote this minuet. It's actually in the hand of his father but nonetheless he was five when he was writing this kind of thing. But because father Leopold realized that he had on his hands a genius and he was an enterprising sort. He packed up the entire family and off they went to Vienna where he showcased the boy's extraordinary skills to the emperor and the empress, empress Maria Theresa and here's a set of clothes, suit Given to young Mozart by the empress Maria Theresa. So after a visit to Vienna back they are in Salzburg and then they set off for a three year grand tour of Europe. They're heading actually they swing up into the North countries but they land initially in Paris and here they again play for the aristocracy. This is Father Leopold at the violin. Sister singing, and Wolfgang at the keyboard. Notice where his feet are. They don't come close to touching the floor, shows you how young he was and, in a way, how diminutive he was. Well, after a year in Paris, off they go now to London and here in London, Mozart writes his first symphony. [MUSIC] So this is Mozart's first symphony dictated to his sister in London at the age of 8. Okay let's move on. As the Mozarts were moving on. So after London they went back to the low countries and came back down into Paris. Stayed again in Paris and then made their way home after three years to this triumphant tour to Salzburg. And then rather shortly there after off the Mozart's go in to Italy down through Verona and over to Milan. Here's a portrait of Mozart. [MUSIC] The age of about 17, playing again the G minor symphony that we listened to a bit before, and saw the music animation before. Now at age 25, in 1781, Mozart moves to and of course, we have seen this slide before that's Vienna. Here we are in the center, the center of Vienna again with the St. Stephen's Cathedral. And this has indicated where Mozart spent a great deal of time around this cathedral and he was actually, his body was actually displayed in state there in the chapel where the blue arrow is. And then his funeral was given and the body was buried here. Out to the South there is that monastery again. Out to the South in St. Mark's cemetery. We can't be sure it was said that Mozart was buried as a pauper, that's really not the case. 85% of the general population were buried in these mass graves for reasons that we need not go into. So there was Mozart buried in the St. Mark's Cemetery. And legend had it that an eagle-eyed grave keeper was paying attention to where Mozart was actually buried and dug up his skull and in the course of time, that skull has made it's way back to the Mozartiem. Is this really the skull of Mozart? Can we learn anything about Mozart or how he thought or how he composed on the basis of this skull? Is this really Mozart? We don't really know although people are going over into the Saint Sebastian church on the other side of the river from the Geburtshaus and into this cemetery where many of the relatives of Mozart are now buried, looking for samples of DNA that they can match with that skull. Well, this is taking us rather far afield here so let's get back to Mozart's music. I'd like to start with a scene from the film Amadeus. It's a spectacular film. It won eight Academy Awards, I think. The Mozart that you see in Amadeus often Is not really true to the way Mozart was. But sometimes it is and it's a fascinating and very insightful representation in so many ways. So sometimes Mozart behaved this way, often times he didn't. But I'd like to start with my favorite scene here. And it's a scene in which Salieri, a supposed arch enemy of Mozart has received a raft of scores from Mozart taken surreptitiously by his wife and being shown to Salieri. And Salieri is astonished because, as he turns the pages of these, he realizes that this is all completely new, unknown music, and it shows no sign whatsoever of actually being worked on. Sort of miraculous conception here, so let's watch this really very special, beautiful scene from Amadeus. >> These are originals? >> Um-hum. [MUSIC] So this is Mozart's music from the Flute And Harp Concerto playing in the background. [MUSIC] >> Astounding. >> Mozart's symphony now in the background. >> It was beyond belief. These were first and only drafts of music. But they showed no corrections of any kind. Not one. [MUSIC] He had simply written down music already finished in his head. Page after page of it. As if he were just taking dictation. >> And this is the mass in C minor here. [MUSIC] Soprano solo. >> And music. >> [INAUDIBLE] >> Finished as no music has ever finished. Displace one note, and it would be diminishment. Displace one phrase, and the structure would fall. [MUSIC] >> It was clear to me. That sound I had heard in the Archbishop's palace had been no accident. [MUSIC] Here again was the very voice of God. >> Okay, well, we'll pause it here. It's a beautiful scene. But is it really accurate? Is it really accurate, did Mozart's music really come down directly from God, untouched almost by human hand? Well, here is an autograph of Mozart. It's actually the same music we were just listening to, it is the autograph of the Kyrie of the C minor mass. Do we see much in the way of correction there? No, virtually none. As we turn over to the next page, yes there is a smudge in the third line and a smudge down toward the bottom. He was changing notes here. The ink wasn't completely dry and he was still able to correct it before that ink did dry. Here's the most extreme case of Mozart working on something, correcting something, that I know of. It's from the C Minor Piano Concerto, in which he wrote the right hand of the piano once, and then twice, and then a third and indeed a fourth time. But this is exceptional because the norm is what we find here in the D minor piano concerto. D minor piano concerto, which it looks like more or less Mozart is in fact just streaming this all out with very little labor. Well, let's delve into Mozart's music a little more deeply here. Let's focus on a movement of a piano concerto, written 1785 for Vienna, performed in the theater, the that we had seen earlier. It's called the Elvira Madigan Concerto because it was used in a film some 30 or 40 years ago of that name. We can get a sense of how it's put together by watching another animated video. This again by Steve Malinowski. Steve has color coded this one with the accompaniment. Just these chords. [MUSIC] [INAUDIBLE] [MUSIC] Listen to this [MUSIC] That note, it's a sharp. It gives it a intensity that [INAUDIBLE] [MUSIC] Here comes the second phrase, balanced phrase [MUSIC]. Here comes another one of those dramatic notes [MUSIC], there. [MUSIC] [INAUDIBLE] Just a moment of tug at your heartstring. Melody up above dives down low. Melody repeated now, up a step. Dives down low. [MUSIC] Now, listen. [MUSIC] To a melodic sequence. [MUSIC] This one's falling down. Melodic sequences that fall down tend to relax. This is very beautiful, it's also very relaxing. [MUSIC] All of the accompaniment is very simple, the melodies ever so simple. [MUSIC] Concluding phrase. We think we're coming to a cadence. But he surprises us, [MUSIC] there, by going to a minor chord instead of the expected meter. He's gonna do a fly over, starting to land again. And finally this time he lands back on the tonic. [MUSIC] At which point the pianist comes in. Notice again how simple the music is. [MUSIC] First phrase. [MUSIC] Inflection and the harmony is just these plunking little chords and triplets underneath. [MUSIC] Answer, [MUSIC] inflection. [MUSIC] Okay, maybe we'll pause here. So this music has the simplest of musical textures. But sometimes Mozart wrote a very complicated texture. So, again, you can make the most beautiful things out of the simplest of materials. Yet at the same time, he had the capacity to write very, very complex music, and sometimes a very complex music will get him into trouble. And for this, let's go to another video clip from Amadeus. Here we have the Emperor, and he's about to congratulate Mozart for the successful premiere of The Abduction from the Seraglio. He thinks it's great, but not perfect. >> Well now, Mozart, a good effort. Oh, well, decidedly that. An excellent effort. You have shown us something, Quite new tonight. >> It is new, it is, isn't it sire? >> Yes indeed. >> So then you liked it? You really liked it sire? >> Well of course I did, it's very good, of course now and then just now and then, it seemed a touch [CROSSTALK] >> This is based on a true event. >> Well, I mean, occasionally it seems to have >> An exchange between the emperor and Mozart >> Oh, how should one say? How shall one say directly? >> Too many notes, Your Majesty. >> Exactly. Very well put. Too many notes. >> I don't understand. There are just as many notes, majesty, as are required, neither more nor less. >> Well my dear fellow, there are in fact only so many notes the ear can hear in the course of a year. >> [LAUGH] Alright, let's pause it here. Too many notes, too many notes. Well, what's at issue here? Well let me see if I can reify this by means of an example Let's turn to an image, musical example of the Jupiter Symphony. And here we have a symphony in the last movement of which Mozart strung out over a period of about seven minutes, five different musical themes. We've got a first theme, and then a first theme part two, and then a transition theme, and then a second theme, and a second theme part two, and so on. What we don't realize is, and maybe Mozart didn't realize this himself as he was proceeding, was that all of these themes could actually be combined. So here are the themes. [MUSIC] That's theme one. [MUSIC] Theme three. [MUSIC] Theme four. [MUSIC] And theme five. [MUSIC] Okay, could those five all possibly go together? Well, that's what Mozart does. We hardly hear it, but it's very dense counterpoint. It's sort of a contrapuntal fireworks here. Let's give a listen by means of another musical animation created by Steve Malinowski. Theme one. >> [MUSIC] >> Four. >> [MUSIC] >> Two. You know, all of so I can't keep track of them all at once. [MUSIC] Okay, let's pause it there. So that's an introduction to the music of Mozart. Which can be sublimely simply or and at the same time devilishly complex. But stick around For a Mozart bonus, if you will. Another favorite scene from Amadeus, here Mozart is about to be presented to Emperor Joseph II. Salieri has written an entry march in honor of Mozart's arrival, his first presentation at court. The Emperor, who studies piano with Salieri, has played this piece only once. Only once. And now on this one hearing, Mozart will play it back. The point of this fictitious but very truthful scene is to show two things. One that Mozart is an extraordinary talent he has an extraordinary musical memory. And that two he can Improvise, riff on any piece of music given by anybody at any time. And that capacity sometimes makes other people mere mortals, such as we, very jealous. >> If you want, it's already here in my head. >> What? From one hearing only? >> I think so Sire, yes. >> Show us. >> Okay, this is Salieri's March. Supposedly by Salieri. [MUSIC] Of course, this actor Tom Holka is not actually playing this keyboard. This keyboard has no strings on it. They patch in the music later. [MUSIC] >> The rest is just the same, isn't it? [MUSIC] >> Salieri begins to understand that the game is up. >> It doesn't really work, does it? [MUSIC] Did you try? [MUSIC] Shouldn't it be a bit more? Or this. [MUSIC] This, yes. [MUSIC] >> So now in Amadeus we have an theme out of The Marriage of Figaro, sung by Figaro. Here it goes. [MUSIC] [LAUGH] >> [FOREIGN] >> So that's an introduction to Mozart. An extraordinary human being, character, who wrote equally extraordinary music.