[MUSIC] Today we leave the music of the romantic period, and German orbit, and return to France and engage impressionism, impressionism in art. And who doesn't like the viewer friendly style of French Impressionism? As we see in this painting by Claude Monet. But I'd like to move back a bit to two other paintings that show no matter how benign impressionism seems today, at the time it was a radical turning away from established art, the art of the academy. And to make this point, let's look at the kind of paintings that you would then see in the Louvre, and indeed, this one's still there today. It's by Jean Auguste Ingres, and it's a portrait of the composer Luigi Cherubini, Berlioz's teacher at the Paris Conservatory. Notice the classical lines and the classical imagery with the muse of the music and the liar behind the composer. This is the sort of officially sanctioned art that the Parisian public expected at that time. The type of art that would have been taught and exhibited at the École des Beaux-Arts. The fine arts school, the official showing place of the academy, the academy of art on the left bank of Paris. Then and now, official art. Now, here's another example, the official, very realistic art, then in favor at the Academy in the second half of the 19th century. Notice how carefully the figures are executed. This painting is so realistic it's almost like a photograph. But next, a radically different approach to art. Impressionist at Sunrise. Or An Impression of Sunrise on the Thames River in London by Claude Monet. Can you make sense out of, can you see a sun? Well, yes, I can see a sun there pretty clearly. A city and boats, well, maybe. I guess, I see the boats there. But the rest of this is pretty much just a haze, an impression of what a sunrise might have been. Now in 1874, Monet asked to have this paint exhibited at the Salon of the Academy of Fine Arts. Monet's painting was rejected. Said one art critic at the time quote, wallpaper in its more,em, most embryonic state. Wallpaper in its most embryonic state is more finished than this seascape, end quote. But this was the painting that started it all. The Impressionist movement. Monet and his friend Renoir and other kindred spirits were derisively referred to as Impressionists. And the label stuck. Their paintings did not offer photographic realism, a photo-like reproduction of a subject or a scene but rather a sensation of it, a momentary fleeting feeling of it. More mood than realism. Here's another example. One of my favorites called A Portrait of a Woman with Umbrella. But its less a portrait of a woman than it is a sensation of some bright spring day with its sunlight and its fresh air and its invigorating breeze. Impression of an experience. Oddly, this kind of painting, which was initially rejected and despised by the academy, became, over time, the most publicly popular of all styles of painting, all styles of art. If your local museum needs to raise some money, just put on an exhibition of impressionism. It will be a block buster, and the public will come flocking in. Another quick example. Here we see, Monet's La Grenouilliere, The Frog Pond. We sense the shimmering of the water seen from a distance. But as we approach the painting, we see how this sensation, this impression, is effective or brought on by Monet through individual dabs of color. Individual dabs close up, but an overall sensation or impression experienced as the viewer will experience it from a distance. Individual dabs of color produce this shimmering effect. And that's what we'll be talking about today, color and music and how music is broken down into dabs of sound. Rather than tied to one long, one color melody. As we move from romanticism to modernism in the arts, especially music, melody is being broken down and color and texture are being foreground. Now, the seminal figure in this transition for music is the composer Claude Debussy. Exemplified by a shimmering moment from his Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun. [MUSIC] Well, that's a very different kind of sound. One very different than what we've been hearing and what we've been experiencing with romantic music. But who were these Impressionists? Well, here we have a list. A list of Painters on the left, Manet, Monet, Renoir, Sisley, Pissaro, Cassatt. And they are sort of precursor of the Impressionists. And then the symbolist Poets, of course, Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud, Mallarme. We'll be talking a bit more about them later on. And then the Composers, Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, and perhaps principle to, but also Gabriel Faure, the Italian, Ottorino Respighi, and the American, Charles Griffes, and while we're on the subject of Americans, let's not forget over there to left at the bottom, of the pa, the painters, the American woman painter, Mary Cassatt. To see this transition from romanticism to impressionism in context let's contrast the French Impressionists with the mainline of German Composers. With the Germans of course we have Bach and Handel and the incomparable Haydn and Mozart and so on down through Gustav Mahler. And note that although Tchaikovsky and Dvorak, well, well they were in fact Russian and Czech. Of course they composed generally in this dominant, mainline German style. Okay, well, how did a German tradition differ from the one that emerged in France in the late 19th century. Well, as you can see here over on the left, the Germans preferred symphonies and concertos, while the French composers were more inclined to engage in tone poems, as we described them before. So the Germans tended to prefer narrative music. The French mood music. The German's tended to write music that was goal oriented. And what I mean by that was not only for te, theological from beginning to end but it was based on cord progressions. Here would be a typical chord progression in a German tradition. >> [MUSIC] Whereas the French might prefer music that harmonically is far more static, static, static. And engage it so by means of ostinato. [MUSIC] It's repeating over and over again. An ostinato pattern there. Contrary motion as opposed to parallel motion. This contrary motion is, we will see with just a moment, is a German specialty, parody motion, is something the French introduce at this point. Major and minor scales. Well they've been the basis of all Western music. Since we began talking about it. Really from the 16th century on, as opposed to new scales, we'll experience today. The whole tone scale. And the pen, pentatonic scale. But just to exemplify this now through the music, let's turn to an example by Gustav Mahler. We'll hear a bit of the symphony of Gustav Mahler, his first symphony. [MUSIC] Okay, so that was Mahler. Now Debussy, just six years later. [MUSIC] As I say, the German style seems to march along goal oriented through functional chord progression. The French style, on the other hand, seems to be perfectly content to live with the moment, to languish and enjoy the musical mood of the moment. Let's go on now to meet the principle com, proponent of Impressionist music, Claude Debussy.