Alright, we're starting to get to know each other a little better now so I figure it's okay if I wear my t-shirts. This one actually, was just given to me by my daughter yesterday for Father's Day. Even though it was the day after Father's day. And yes, I now realize that the entire world does not celebrate Father's day on the same day. it was indeed our Father's day in Canada. So you know, happy Father's day to those of you who celebrated it. And happy future Father's day for those of you who are about to. alright, we're going to finish up our little mini-series on altered states of consciousness with the electron hypnosis, which is kind of a cool and interesting topic. Week eight lecture three. Just stare into that weird freaky graphic for a while and you'll wish you didn't. [LAUGH] It kind of messes with your head a little bit. though there's a few of these, I think if you just Google hypnosis, you will get a bunch of different things that you can put on your Powerpoints at work and stuff, and drive people absolutely crazy. alright, lots of ground to cover, as always, and I'm going to try to not to make this into a 24 minute lecture. So, let's start with a little bit of history and I want to start with this gentleman on the left here. this is Mesmer, the famous Mesmer. Anton Mesmer. Now, he was an interesting guy on multiple levels. He agreed or he, he would, he was much more spiritual but spiritual in a new age kind of way, I guess you'd say. and so one of the things that, that he felt was that he could help people by sort of shaping forces within them. things like animal magnetism, he felt like he could sense these forces within people and he could shape them. So he was a little bit, he was trying to help people, he kind of had a doctor mentality, but he was a little more out there than your, than your average doctor. And in fact at one point he began experimenting with magnets. So, so magnets and magnetism was kind of a new, not, not a new discovery, but people were really understanding the properties of magnets, and they were fascinated by them. They're kind of weird, right? Attracting metal the way they do, and all that. So, Franz Anton Mesmer believed that this force of magnets had power, had real strength. And he would use them therapeutically, and in one of his therapies, for example, he would have people immerse themselves in a pool of water. into which magnetic rods were, were, stuck. [LAUGH] Put in. and the idea being that if you bathed in this magnetic water, that it could somehow align your forces right and cure what ails you. Now very important to the point I want to make is that Franz Anton Mesmer himself believed this. Okay? He was not a charlatan. He was not out to get people's money. He really felt that magnets had a force and a power. you know, which they do. At some level they do. But he thought this power extended to the health domain, and that it could be used to realign people. So imagine, you know, going to a physician, albeit a somewhat experimental physician. and that physician saying, I know what's wrong with you. Your forces are misaligned. We can use magnets, which radiate these forces. Look, I can show it to you. I can show you how magnets attract metal and such. And we're going to immerse you in this pool of magnetized water. And that will realign your forces and you will feel better. Okay? And imagine the person really obviously believed that was true themselves, as they were saying that to you. well, [SOUND] Franz Anton Mesmer had some very powerful results. There were some people who seemingly at least got better. They at least said they got better. that they felt better. They looked better. They acted better. there was something going on there and now Sigmund Freud was kind of beginning to practice at the time. And, and one of the interesting things that, that Franz Anton Mesmer was saying is that, that this works for psychological disorders. In fact, it works pretty well for psychological disorders. So, Freud became very interested. and he would go and watch the procedure. But Freud at some point began to believe that it wasn't the magnets that were, that were having the effect. But it was in fact Mesmer. It was, you know, what he was saying and how he was saying it and the, and the courage of his belief. and that what he was actually doing was suggesting to the patients, in a very strong and powerful way, that they would feel better. And Franz kind of felt it might have been the suggestions that were actually making people feel better. Not the magnetism. Okay, so we now use this term, you know to mesmerize somebody and that's named after Mesmer. And so, Mesmer became as it will as it were the father of hypnosis, he wasn't trying to create hypnosis but people eventually realized the power of suggestion, and that's really what Mesmer was using and documenting. So Franz became very interested in this but of course, Freud believed that you wouldn't ultimately cure anybody through suggestion. You could for a short term. You could suggest that they feel better and, and they would, might act like they feel better. But if they had this deep-seated psychological trauma, that's what was actually causing the issues. and so just telling them they would feel better wouldn't really get rid of that. But he did for a while think that maybe hypnosis and so he was kind of there for that transition. It's not the magnet its the hypnosis its the suggestion that maybe hypnosis could be used as a therapeutic tool for getting at the psychological issue. U, and, and he experimented with it for a while. But ultimately, he rejected it. He ended up saying it's not a very good tool for psychotherapy. He preferred dreams for example, that as we talked about in the last lecture. Now, why? Okay, that takes us to another aspect of hypnosis. I'll explain the picture in a moment. But what Franz realized is that when people were hypnotized, yes they were very suggestible. they, they could play along for example with, with, role playing scenarios very well, which was really interesting to Franz. Because he would sometimes use role playing to try to draw out the unconscious attitudes or, or issues. but what he found is they're almost too suggestible and that there were impacts of that suggestibility. Specificially if you pushed somebody enough under hypnosis to tell you about somethig that they really didn't know anything about. So, imagine for example, you even took somebody and you said tell me about your brother. And the person said I don't have a brother. And you say no you do have a brother, you may not remember him very well he may be moved away from your family very young, but you do have a brother and I want you to tell me about that brother. well sometimes hypnotized people would go along with that. And they would start to tell you things it, it's something we call confabulation in psychology. It's not really lying, they're not trying to deceive but they're creating untrue facts, okay? So, in that sense it's like a lie but, but it's not with the intent to deceive. It's in this case, just because they're being pushed to do that. And if you push them enough to do it, they'll do it. and so they will, you know, give all these facts and this was really kind of worrisome thing to Franz. He realized they would just tell you things that just weren't true. But he also realized that when you took them out of the trance afterwards, they seem to keep believing the things they created, okay? There was this once confabulated, the feeling that they had was so rich to them that they now believed it to be true. So this really worried, Franz and he thought it was a potentially dangerous technique to be using therapeutically. now, why does that happen or what happens? Well, one of the things we do know about hypnosis and I haven't really talked to you about the process but it's largely a process of inducing very deep relaxation. Okay? It's, it's a very akin to relaxation therapy actually, which you know, I, I think I've mentioned it before. But just to give you a little taste it would just, you could just ask someone to relax, lay back on the bed. And go through their muscle groups from their feet all the way to the top of the head. One muscle group at a time. And tell them to tighten, tighten, tighten then relax and feel that relaxation. So you can do that with people and you can ultimately have them feeling so supremely relaxed. Hypnosis is kind of like that, it kind of induction kind of puts people in this relaxed state. And of the things we know about hypnosis is when people are in that relaxed state two things happen. One, they're very suggestable, they'll tend to go along with things. and the other is their imagery seems to be much richer. So they can produce very rich images in their mind. You know, remember for you I, okay, let's do, you know, how tall can you reach sitting on a camel. remember that one? When I do that, well I mean, you know, you can have this image of yourself sitting on a camel. But it's probably kind of a vague image. when people are hypnotized, they have richer images. and I'll tell you why that's relevant in just a, in a moment but that seems important to this memory thing. So if, if you push them to, to create a memory, let's call it but it's really, you know, experienced in their mind, that the experience they create becomes so rich that they, they can sometimes feel its true. and so they can mix up what they've created with what they've remembered. False memory. Yeah, a little bit of that. In fact and that's what Franz was worried about. He was sensing hints of that. That is actually why in a courtroom case once a witness has been hypnotized, they can no longer serve as a witness. sometimes we do hypnotize witnesses, let's imagine somebody was at a bank robbery and they were there. And we know that they saw the people who did it. What we've tried as Police we, we're now Police officers. We've tried everything we could do, to figure out who did it and we've probed all of these peoples memory as far as we can and we've got nowhere. Well, we may now take some of those witnesses and hypnotize them because when you hypnotize them and now ask them to relive the event. They will report more than they would when they weren't hypnotized. Okay? They're more suggestible, they're more willing to say things even if the idea's kind of like, if you weren't hypnotized, you're thinking [NOISE]. I think maybe the guy had a red shirt but I can't really remember if he had a red shirt, maybe it was blond curly hair. So, so, if in our waking state we have this line where we say I'm just not sure enough. You know, I'm not comfortable saying that's true, its a feeling I have but I don't think its, I'm not comfortable saying it, under hypnosis, will say it and will believe it, after. and so, hypnosis is sometimes, sometimes those things people output turn out to be accurate useable information that help you find the criminal. Sometimes it's just confabulation. and so, Police will use it sometimes on the hope that some bit of information is in fact useful and gets them back on the trail. But as soon as they that, they can no longer use that person as a witness. Hey, because the courtroom knows their memory is no longer to be trusted. Interesting. One other, finally getting back to this. You've probably seen shows on TV about things like alien abduction. Someone was abducted by aliens. Invariably in those accounts they will tell stories like if, like the following. First, I didn't know what happened. Me and my, my buddies were out on a boat. And we were rowing and there was this, this bright light and this weird thing. And, and things were feeling really odd and, and next thing I knew I woke up on the beach. but then, thankfully I went to a therapist and under hypnosis, I was able to recall everything that had happened. And I was picked up by aliens and I was probed in uncomfortable ways and yada-yada-yada and they tell the whole alien abduction story. Now, um, [LAUGH] I hope I'm not offending any of you who were alien abducted. that's not my intent. But my point being that in a lot of those cases or a lot of people who believe they've had past lives, et cetera, that have done it through hypnosis. That fits exactly with everything that I told you. That if somebody had a weird experience in the water, if there was some sort of bright light and, you know, whatever. And they ended up on the shore and they couldn't remember, that's the reality. But then with hypnosis, they can piece together the story. They can create the story. They can confabulate the story. And then they believe it. Okay? and so then they'll swear to it. It was absolutely true, they can remember it clear as day, thanks to the hypnosis. Tricky. Okay? Now, again, I'm not saying that anything remembered under hypnosis is incorrect. That's not true. but there is that worry. It becomes very succeptable to Let's leave that point. Let me now take these together and say well, there's really two kinds of, two situations where you see hypnosis used in the real world. It is used in therapies. and it's used for entertainment. So let's talk about therapies now. Franz kind of rejected it. But again, Franz rejected it as a means to get at psychic trauma. modern psychologist, many of them don't buy into the whole psychoanalytic story. But they see hypnosis as a valuable tool in other ways. for example, very often they use it in combination with things like conditioning. So, lemme give you a, a, a great example for you to think about. I actually as, as an undergraduate, I was interested in hypnosis. And I did a project where I got to hang out with a hypnotherapist for a day. And see her do her thing with about five different clients. And in one case it was for a stop smoking, therapy. A person wanted to stop smoking. And hypnosis can sometimes be quite useful. and in that case, here's what the hypnotherapist did. She got the person very relaxed. She did the whole hypnotic induction. And, and, and then she ultimately said, okay, I'm going to. Paint a picture for you, and, and I want you to see this picture in your mind. Imagine yourself sitting in your living room and you're sitting there and you're having a cigarette and you have the ashtray in front of you, and it's, it's been a while since you cleaned the ashtray. So there's a lot of, there's a lot of ashes and there's a lot of grime and there's some old cigarette butts and all of that kind of stuff in the ashtray in front of you. And you don't know why, but, but this is what you suddenly see yourself doing. You take a nice long drag on the cigarette and with that smoke and that taste in your mouth. You grab the ashtray with your other hand and you lick it and take into your mouth the, the filters, the ashes, everything and its disgusting. It just tastes gross you keep it in your mouth. for some reason you can't seem to spit it out. And every second it's in your mouth it's more and more and more disgusting. And all you want to do is just go wahh, and get rid of all this stuff. Alright? Now, for you smokers out there, what, what we've done now is draw an association between [SOUND]. And bleahhh. Okay? But we can do that without hypnosis. I just did it to you. and maybe the next time you have a cigarette you'll, kind of think of this example. and maybe it'll make you not want a cigarette so bad. Under hypnosis your imagery is better. It would look more real, it would seem more real, it would smell more real, it would taste more real and the disgust would be more real. You would feel it more viscerally. And so what the therapist is now trying to do, is take all that yuckiness and mix it with the feeling of inhaling from a cigarette. They want you to essentially feel disgust everytime you light a cigarette. And by the way this therapist often said you know that feeling that's how some other people, feel around you when you light up. and when you're spewing spoke and ash everywhere, you're adding a little bit of that disgustingness to their world. So, they bring in social factors and try to do all these things but again, what they're trying to do is not psychoanalytic, its much more Pavlovian than Franzian/g. It's just drawing connections and associations producing those memory cues. and trying to all link them to the act of smoking in the hopes that smoking will become less of a pleasurable thing for you. It's almost the opposite of what the advertisers do when they try to link smoking with, with attractive male cowboy models. Yeah. That's it. [LAUGH] Alright. It's still used, and it's used quite a bit. And, and it's sometimes very successful. So, certainly, I'm not digging the therapeutic use of hypnosis. It's out there and it's very successful now. By the way, I should add the caveat, that hypnosis is one of these things that works very well for some people and not at all for others. and it depends a lot on a persons comfort level with their therapist. So, if you really trust the therapist and, and you're one of those people for whom hypnosis is pretty effective, it can be a really powerful therapy. for other people I, there was some in that session I was at where the hypnotherapist was suggesting that they close their eyes. You're getting sleepy and relaxed and close your eyes and they sat there with their eyes open. And she'd say, no relax, close your eyes. And maybe they'd blink but then keep your eyes open. and eventually she'd just say hypnotherapy's not going to work for you.. you know, you have to be willing to kind of give yourself over and let the therapist kind of to some extent load up your mind with things. And if you're not willing to do that, it's not going to work. Okay? Alright. So that's the therapeutic use. Let's go to the entertainment use. Because the entertainment use is, is, perhaps from a psychological point of view, the thing that's most startling and makes us really wonder what's going on with hypnosis. This guy is my iconic image of hypnosis. This is the Amazing Ravine. [LAUGH] When I was a kid. Growing up in Fredericton, New Brunswick the Amazing Ravine would come by in maybe about once a year, once every two years to our local hockey rink. and people would pay a lot of money to go see him. And he would have this, you know, stage hypnosis show. And crazy things would happen. in fact, I think the Amazing Ravine might be one of the reasons I got into psychology. I was fascinated by hypnosis as a kid largely because of him. I have his album I had his album I don't think I still have his album. Yeah, anyway, so, here's one of the memories I have that, that kind of freaked me out. So there's all these people on stage and of course he does all these things with them but one of things he did was what's called post hypnotic suggestion. So he took this one guy and he said. Alright. Here's what's going to happen with, with, with you. at some point I'm just going to let you go back to the audience as though it, as though your part of the show is over. but then a little while later I will say the word confabulate. I'll just hold that back. So, I'll hold the word confabulate. And when I say the word confabulate, you'll suddenly have this thought and this compulsion. that is, you will imagine that you came to the show tonight with a woman named Irene. and you really love Irene. but, but suddenly, like, Irene's not with you. She's, she's not at your side. And you're pretty sure that Irene is with another man. and so that's the thought that'll go through your head when I say the word confabulate. And you'll suddenly feel this drive to find Irene and it'll be the most desperate thing. You'll really want to get her to come talk to you so that you can talk her out of whatever she's about to do. Right? Crazy idea. So, he says that, eventually release this guy back into the crowd. The show goes on for a little while and at some point he says the word confabulate. At first we don't see much happening, so everyone's kind of like disappointed. But then, not too long later, we hear this screaming voice, Irene, what are you doing? Irene, don't do it. And, and this guy is like running all around. It's, it's a hockey rink. So he keeps running and coming out of these other little alcoves, looking around frantically, Irene, Irene, where are you, Irene? Don't do it. Et cetera, et cetera, et cetera. Now imagine a 17 year-old guy or a 16 year-old guy at this going oh my goodness, Reveen really is amazing. He can control people's minds. That's what hypnosis certainly looks like, right. He can control people's minds. I want to learn how to do that. [LAUGH] Well. I never really learned how to do hypnosis, not I, I know its simple, but let's, let's leave that for a moment. Let's ask the question what is going when you see these people, why is this happening. and I'm going to raise this because there's actually two, it, and I got this off a website that I'm going to push you towards. where they make this distinction. There's a lot of theories of hypnosis. This is going to start to feel like deja vu in terms of the dreams lecture. how do I mix all my lectures together. in the sense that, remember I said there's all these different theories of dreams but how do you know which one's right. Well, there's a lot of theories of hypnosis as well. Now, this website they kind of break them into the, these two classes of theories, state theories and non-state theories. What they really mean by that is the state theory is the impression the stage hypnosis gives you. The impression that they are able to control someone's mind. you know that they've somehow taken control of that person. Whereas the non-state theory kind of says yeah, it can look like that, but that's not really what's going on. so a little more breakdown. So the state theories the ideas that hypnotic inductions produce an altered state of consciousness. So somehow this person's state of consciousness has been changed. This trance is associated with a, a change in their brain functioning, so literally the hyp, hypnotist has done something to this person that's changed their psychological way of interacting. and that this, these it sa, say's responses to hypnotic suggestion are a result of special processes such as a disassociation or another or other altered states of consciousness. So, somehow they're able to talk to a different part of the person who will respond to their commands, their suggestions. and, and part of the notion of this is that it's, it's ro, hypnotizability that's the, the, the likelihood that a given individual can be hypnotized. That that tends to be very stable over long periods of time. Like there's something about them where they're able, where they're willing to give up control to another individual. and that's what they're really doing according to a state theory. Now according to non-state theory and I'll give you an example to, to make this distinction I think a little more clear. According to a non-state theory, yes they're responding to the suggestions but its not really because of hypnosis its because of something else. and they're actively doing it. They're not slaves to the hypnotist. They're not zombies that will follow everything the hypnotist says, not according to non-state theories. They are actually actively part of what's going on. they're responses are a product of normal psychological processes, such as attitudes, expectations and motivations. suggest ability can be modified with drugs or psychological procedures. Let's not worry about the last point. Let's, let's worry more about the first three of the non state because here, here is, well, one professor kind of gave me the following example that I think made me understand the possibility of non state theories better. He said, do you know those people who go out at night and they drink way too much alcohol and then they act like idiots. They act like jerks. and then the next day they say. Sorry, let me back up, let me not even say they act like idiots and jerks. Because that's too strong. let me start over and say they drink a lot of alcohol and then they act in a way that's not characteristic of them. So maybe a conservative woman becomes more flirtatious. maybe a generally quiet people become less inhibited. So maybe they're not to the point of being jerks and idiots but they're certainly like you know, dancing up a storm on, on the dance floor. Somebody who barely even talks to anybody is not out being, you know, crazy and active. Extroverted, let's say even on the dance floor. But then the next day when you talk to them and you say, wow, you were really having a good time last night. And they might say, oh I'm sorry, that, that really wasn't me. That, I had too much to drink. It was the alcohol. I'll never do that again. I feel like an idiot. Okay. We know those people and according to this professor what those people are doing are using alcohol as an opportunity to escape the self that they have essentially created. The self being one of the other topics we may hit on more in this, in this, this week. So the idea is that we all create an identity through our actions, through our behaviors, through what we say and what we do. We kind of create, for lack of a better word, a personality. This is who we are. Now, in creating that, we also essentially become prisoners of that personality. There are certain ways we tend to act, certain behaviors that are typical of us and those are the behaviors that people expect from us. And if suddenly we behave in a way that's different from that, everybody around us thinks something's weird something's up with that person. So before long we kind of start to build ourselves a little box. A behavioral box and we admit behaviors that fit with that box, and only those behaviors. Drinking might allow somebody to escape the box. And behave in ways that nobody think is normal for them but they have an excuse. Right? Hypnosis, a non-state theory, sort of socio-cultural kind of perspective so, so cognitive, is that it's the same thing. That maybe many of us Have this desire to be a little crazy, a little silly, a little Jim Carey. You know Jim Carey doesn't need to be hypnotized to act silly and fun and wacky, right. and so the idea is that we all have, do you guys know who Jim Carey is, he's Canadian by the way, he's a comedian. we all have a little Jim Carey within us is the claim, we would all love to be silly and goofy and make people laugh and be completely out there. And, and be shameless, you know, say whatever we want to say, do do crazy things. but we don't because we've built our behavioral box. And certain behaviors would be too wacky. Unless a hypnotist tells us to do that. If a hypnotist tells us to do that then we have an excuse. We have, it's back to the authority figure almost. We have somebody to blame. It's not alcohol, it's now Ravine made me do that. So this guy running around, Irene where are you, you know, he knows he's making everybody laugh, he knows he's become part of the show, he knows he's fascinating people. and the claim is, he's kind of enjoying it and having a good time. Not necessarily consciously, which is a kind of weird twist. You know, not necessarily that he's fully playing along and just, you know, bull crapping everybody. It's almost that he has been given the freedom to just go with it in this relaxed, hypnotic state and chooses to do so, okay. But he's, but he is an active partner is the claim. you will see on some stage shows by the way that when, when a therapist pushes somebody too far to be silly or to be unethical or provocative. some people will just fall asleep. And typically the therapist will quietly and gently have them removed from the stage. The claim is those are people who don't want to play along. That, that they've been pushed too far, they're not going to do that silliness and that's there way of escaping the situation. They just kind of fall asleep. The therapist is very good at recognizing this, allows them to exit gracefully and the show continues. Okay? So, a different view, which is going on, which one of these two? by the way, I should say when you ask people who are hypnotized and especially the ones who acted really crazy, were you just playing along? They will sometimes say, I don't even remember what I did. But again, the claim is, they don't want ownership of those behaviors. They want the hypnotist to get ownership of the behavior. So, they're not going to own up to it the next day either. And there may be a complex interaction between conscious and unconscious processes going on here. It may have been a moment of freedom that consciously they do not want to take ownership of who knows? So, the claim is, just because someone says I don't remember any of that, that doesn't mean everything in a non-state thing is untrue. but here's the problem. We now have two theories, very different theories. How do we know it's true? What psychology experiment can we do to test this? Well, we may never know. Because it seems the only way to really test whether someone's playing along or not is to push their ethical boundaries so far. or their behavioral boundaries at least so far that we can be sure that we must have control over them. They would not have done that action unless we had control over them. So there have been some psychology studies that have attempted this but think of these studies. I have a snake, I might have mistaken a person's hand but I actually think I got a snake in their foot. I'm not sure. But anyway here's one psychology study. They had a poisonous looking snake in a aquarium and they had participants come in. And before they hypnotized them, they told them this whole story about the snake. That it was a poisonous snake. That they had a few of these around because one of the biologists needed extra space and so because they were very dangerous snakes they had to be in a secure lab. So they're here, but not to worry, they're, they're fine. and then they hypnotized some of these participants and they asked them under hypnosis, will you go and grab that snake, please, and, and pick it up. And the question is, would they? Would they expose themselves to danger? And the answer was yes, they would. They did, some did. Some went and just picked the snake up under hypnotic trance no problem. What does that prove? Let me tell you about another one, get you thinking about that. There was another one where they, they actually introduced to hypnotic subjects a gun and they told them the gun was loaded. and there was a real gun, it was loaded and they asked them to point, pick it up, point it at somebody and pull the trigger. Milgram experiment gone crazy, right? [LAUGH] Some did. What's that show? Well, I didn't highlight it enough in this course, really. But there's a whole code of ethics in psychology. And a core part of that is you cannot ask anybody to do anything harmful to others or to themselves. you, you can, there's a whole, you know, a line of ethics where you cannot ask people to do. So you couldn't, for example, ask somebody to, to strip naked in front of you. that would not past the ethics committee. although surprisingly if you're an artist you can do that, but, but not if you're a psychologist. so you know, anything like that you can't ask them to do. Which, and, and we tell all our students this, first year psychology, early in the course. These are the students that we invite to be in our experiments. And so every student who comes into the experiment knows that the researcher cannot ask them to do anything unethical. and, and cannot ask them to do anything that brings harm to themselves or others. So, one could reason that some subjects, you know with a snake, well they know it can't really be harmful. No experimenter could ask them to really handle a harmful snake, so maybe that's why they go ahead and do it. and they know, hey, um, [LAUGH] I don't think pass if an experimenter asked me to shoot somebody. I don't think they could get away with too many data points like that. and so, clearly the gun must not be loaded and he's just seeing if I would shoot. And so the fact that some people do these acts is not seen as evidence that there's any sort of control over their being. It may be them just kind of knowing the rules of the game in which they're playing. And because those rules are pretty straight and pretty strict, psychologists can, may never be able to do a definitive experiment to, to kind of tell those two, the state versus the non-state theories. Apart, and so there are cases like that where we just we're bound by out ethical code and we can't do that. yeah alright well okay that was a bit of a chore of hypnosis, some more follow-up for you. a little bit more history of hypnosis which is kind of cool. this is a discussion of how its used in theraputic situations. This is self hypnosis. hypnosis is very relaxing. and it's a great way to get relaxed at the, if you've had a busy day. If you've had a stressful day. If you've had 50 people that want too many things from you. if you can learn, to self hypnotize. Or just listen to somebody else kind of walk you through a hypnotic suggestion. that can really relax you and make you feel good. And so, I've thrown that in there a for that reason and b because, alright b because I wanted you to get a sense of what a hypnotic induction is like. So that there you can actually experience one. No harm nothing to be afraid of, it will just relax you and make you feel good. this last one's a link to a stage hypnosis show. I didn't see this through and sometimes they can, these can be provocative. They like, the stage hypnotists like to walk this line between the ethical. So they will do things like ask. They, they will tell people like, it's getting very very hot in here. You're feeling very hot, very hot, so sweaty, and especially if they have some females in the audience who start to lift their shirt up when they, when they hear that. And the therapist will let them begin to lift their shirt up. And then say, okay, okay, now, no more, you don't feel hot anymore. And so the therapist is trying to say but she would have. She would have. I have that much control. So they try to flirt with how much control they have, at the same time, understanding, if you believe the non-state, that they can't push this too far because then people will just start going to sleep on them. And so they're always walking that line, the claim is but they tend to be provocative. And so if provocative bothers you, maybe don't watch the state hypnosis one, just take my word for it, that's what they do. On the reading side, just a couple things that, that outline some of these theories to give you a sense of what the theories are. and how, how you can divide them up. So this one kind of this one has a lot of different theories. This one kind of breaks them into three groups, I have no idea why that does that. My computer has a bit of a mind of its own. Alright, so I'm going to show up there. There's the hypnosis one, and the next two lectures are going to be with respect to children. one about Cognitive development and the next one more about parenting, parenting styles parent child, attachments relationships, alright. So we will get into those as the next two. Alright, bye, bye.