[MUSIC] Going to the next level, which is this one right here, gateway and network. In order to do that we need more wireless LAN, wired LAN, and wide area network technologies that are focusing on mobile communication techniques. In addition to support this level, we need routers, we need hubs, we need switches. And that's why we need a lot more hardware technology to form the gateways that will collect, and aggregate the data that needs to be connected, and service to the internet. In order to do that, of course we need radio communication modules, micro controllers, signal processing units, access points, and various other components. This must support massive volumes of IoT data produced by wireless sensors, and smart devices. Massive amounts, how much are we predicting? In my other lecture, that is my other course, smart device and mobile emerging technologies. There we talk about fourth, and fifth generation mobile communications. Fourth generation mobile communications is LTE and LT advanced, we already have that. Fifth generation mobile communications is what's coming in the near future. Already in the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics in Korea, there were already demonstrations of fifth generation mobile communication modules, demonstrated in various platforms and devices. So it's already here, and it's already being spread out throughout the world. And you're going to see it very soon. What type of massive volume of IoT connectivity? If you look at the fifth generation mobile communication specifications, it's talking about within a square kilometer, like one kilometer by one kilometer square, one kilometer square area, we're talking about 1 million IoT devices or maybe even more. That is what we're talking about massive volumes. Think about it, 1 million in a square kilometer area or more. Naturally, why do you say or more? Think of a tall building that has 60 floors, and multiple floors under the ground, and multiple floors over the ground, skyscraper building. Naturally in a building like that you will have more that you will need to deal with. This requires robust and reliable performance. If you're going to have this level of hyperconnectivity, ultra-level connectivity required, you must be supported by a robust, a reliable performing network, and gateway connectivity. You need to support private, public, and hybrid network models. You need to support quality of service requirements, low latency, error probability. You want as less of that as possible. High performance wise, high throughput, high efficiency in terms of energy. High levels of security and scalability. What do you mean by high levels of scalability? Scalability is the issue where some networks when they are small they work well. But when they become 10 times larger, 100 times larger, then they may not work. Because their protocol is not scalable, the network management and operations are not scalable. Meaning that when they grow, then the overall additional work that needs to be done becomes so burdening that it cannot operate well. In other words, when the network was small, in one second I got a result from the operation that I requested. But when I have 100 users using it at the same time, it takes minutes and minutes and hours to get a reply, or get the results done. And that is a result of not being scalable. Scalability is so critical, especially for massive volumes of IoT data where you need to aggregate it and connect them together to provide services to the network. It is important to also integrate different types of networks into a single IoT platform. Networks, there are so many different types. Even in this lecture in this course, we will be talking about various types of wireless LAN and wireless PAN techniques, such as roller all the way going to Bluetooth. We're going to be talking about Wi-Fi, we're going to talk 6LoWPAN, Zigbee, there's such a wide variety, and they all have their own protocol, and own characteristics. And that's just the wireless PAN, and wireless LAN techniques. We have so much more, even when you say Wi-Fi, there are such a wide variety of Wi-Fi techniques. When you talk to say Bluetooth, even within Bluetooth there are so many protocol, different specifications that came about, which I will talk about in the following pages. So keep in mind that even within Wi-Fi, there's a variety of different modes, even within Bluetooth, there's a variety but then among Bluetooth, Wi Fi ZigBee, 6LoWPAN, all these are different. Then you need to integrate that along with your wire techniques, along with your mobile communication, wide area network protocols and techniques. IoT sensors are aggregated with various types of protocols, and heterogeneous networking techniques. And therefore you need to provide very capable, integrated, homogeneous, interoperable services. IoT networks need to be scalable once again, because of the massive structure. Because of the massive domain of number of devices that will be operating within your domain of a network that you need to collect, aggregate, and provide gateway services to, provide network security services to, provide quality of service support, automatically scalability needs to be there.