In this module, we'll study about IoT Networks, starting off with IoT Wireless Networks. The IoT network architecture can be represented in this type of a form, where you can see various communication components are connected to some type of building that is connected to the Internet. However, in the front end where a lot of the IoT technology-based devices that we interface as users, are basically connected to either, a mobile communication network which you see right here, a cellular network, and in here, most likely it would be like 2G, 3G, 3G, or 4G, or maybe even 5G in the near future. Technologies based upon 4G, would be LTE, Long-Term Evolution technology, and Long-Term Evolution LTE advanced, LTE-A technology. Of course, this is one major component, especially because our smartphones have Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity, and these enable IoT direct access for many many cases. Looking into that, you can see exactly Bluetooth technology. This is called a wireless PAN network, as in terms of wireless Personal Area Network, which is a small area network basically trying to enable wireless connection of objects that have these modem modules inside, that I can directly access within something like a room. Something in my personal area, something in my direct reach of a room. In addition, we also have wireless LAN technology which is represented by a bigger, a wider blue cell that you see right here, wireless Local Area Network. Instead of a Personal Area Network, this is a Local Area Network is larger. It may incorporate the range of a couple of personal area networks, and the representative technology of this is Wi-Fi. Now, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are so important. So, I'm going to focus on the details of these two protocols in the following module, which is about Wi-Fi and Bluetooth alone. This is because they are the primary connections onto your smartphone. In addition, they are the widely used protocols in the world, along with mobile communication, like the big three, you can think of him that way. Mobile communication, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth, and because of that we're going to dedicate some separate module and lectures to that. In addition, we also have in the wireless Personal Area Network, the small range network that we use like in Bluetooth, other modules such as ZigBee, as well as six 6LowPAN technology, and several others actually exist. We'll be focusing this lecture on those together, in addition, about wide area network connectivity technology together in this lecture. Wearable IoT networks, as in terms of wearable devices that have IoT connectivity. Some connectivity would be, the wireless connections that enable us to the cellular network, to us through a smartphone or a smartwatch. These typically would be something like mobile communication LTE, or 3G communication, and in the future 5G mobile communication. But, the connections of our devices that are connecting to our smartphone, would be something of like in the form of Bluetooth, or ZigBee, 6LowPAN, or other technologies. Going into the details, wearable devices can be used to detect the biometric information from sensors and IoT modules in our shoes, watch, glasses, belt, and pacer as well as other devices. These type of devices could be sending information to our smartphone, and our smartphone could be connecting it to the cellular network. In addition, there are some cases where these devices may be equipped with a special type of wireless technology, that directly connects us to the wide area network. Now, we'll talk about that very soon, but first we'll go over the details of these type of wireless PAN, and wireless LAN technologies. Smart devices can collect information from the wearable devices, and communicate with the control center. If it's about medical information, the medical center. Through all of these connections, we definitely need a wireless connectivity, which may be of one segment or multiple segments as in terms of a wireless LAN to a mobile communication protocol, or a wireless PAN to a wireless LAN protocol as in terms of from Bluetooth, and then using Wi-Fi, connecting to an access point that will connect us to the internet, or using Bluetooth to connect your smartphone and having mobile communication connect to the internet. Either way, we will be connected to a control center, and if it's biomedical information, then it will be connected to a medical server to monitor our health conditions and provide us with important decisions and alert signals. In some cases, for example, if you have an heart attack, then it will provide you with emergency response and help. Something like calling an ambulance, for example. Wi-Fi is a wireless LAN, Wireless Local Area Network technology, that is based upon the IEEE 802.11 standards. The IEE stands for, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is one of the world's largest professional memberships society, and it is a society for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. In this group, because of the characteristics of its participants, they actively do a lot of research and development, in addition they do standardization. This is one of their flagpole accomplishments. It is the 802.11 standards, 802.11, you will see the 802 stands for local area networking technologies, and 11.11 stands for the wireless LAN specifics, in which we have Wi-Fi technology defined. Wi-Fi devices are your smartphones, smart devices, laptop computers, PCs, and many more. Some smartwatches may have just Bluetooth, but some smartwatches will have Bluetooth and Wi-Fi together. It's based upon how, and what type of design, and their purpose. Application areas include everything. Simply. From homes, to school, to computer labs, to office buildings, like I said everything just simply speaking. Wi-Fi devices and access points APs, have a wireless connection range about 30 meters when you're indoors. What do you mean by indoors? Being indoors means that there are walls, there's doors, there's a ceiling, there's a floor. In these doors, walls, floors and ceiling, there are metal material, there are other materials inside which block radio-frequency propagation. That is why when you go indoors, the propagation range of your signal is limited by the surrounding room and the building environment. Now, therefore the range of WI-FI of course will be extended if you go outdoors. We will go and talk about this in much more detail in the following module. However here we'll stick to some of the details that we have listed in which, Wi-Fi data rates are based upon protocol type. Eleven a, can achieve up to 54 megabits per second, 11b, can go up to 11 megabits per second, 11g, can go up to 54 megabits per second, 11n can go up to 150 megabits per second, 11ac can go up to 866.7 megabits per second, extremely high isn't it? But then again even higher is 11ad protocol, can go up to seven gigabits per second. Now, there's two factors that you need to consider, in terms of determining what will be your data rate. One component you need to think about is that, how close am I to the access point point? Or to the base station? Or to other users? The reason is because the farther you are away the less data rate you will get. The second factor is, how many users are sharing the network? Because if you have many users surrounding you that are connected to the same access point, then these data rates that you see right here will be shared among with them. Bluetooth technology.. Bluetooth is a wireless PAN, Personal Area Network technology. This is different from Wi-Fi which is a wireless, Local Area Network technology. A wireless Local Area Network is larger. This is a Personal Area Network which is shorter, smaller. This replaces cables as in terms of connecting many different types of devices in terms like, you may have been using your wireless headset and it most likely will have bluetooth technology. In other words if it was not a wireless headset, from your smartphone, or your MP3 player, to your headset, you'll need a cable, you'll need a wire connection. However, you can use bluetooth to replace that cable, replace that wire connection between your smartphone and your headset, and that is basically what bluetooth is about. In addition, connecting printers to your local computer, your local PC or your laptop or tablet PC. Typically replacing short range distant devices as in terms that, your personal area could be define something like, when you're in a room and you see all the objects there that are almost in reachable distance, you stand up and you reach your hand, you go there a couple of steps and you can touch that device. That is typically considered your personal area network. Whereas a Local Area Network, would be like the room that you're in and a couple of surrounding rooms, maybe even the room on the upper floor and the lower floor, could be sharing an access point, that is connected to the wireless Local Area Network, that is also connected to the Internet. So, your Local Area Network is larger than your Personal Area Network. Bluetooth standard PAN range is usually about 10 meters. However, higher standards, more advanced standards like Bluetooth 4.0 and higher, in some cases based upon the setting they could reach up to like 50 meters. Bluetooth low energy, this is also in Bluetooth 4.0. This provides reduce power consumption which is where it gets its name LE, Low Energy, and cost while maintaining a similar communication range. Bluetooth protocol types and data rates for example, we can see Bluetooth 2.0, with EDR, Enhanced Data Rate, can go up to 2.1 megabits per second. Bluetooth 3.0, with HS, can achieve up to 24 megabits per second. Bluetooth 4.0, can go up to 25 megabits per second. Bluetooth five can go up to 50 megabits per second. Further details about this, I will go over in the next module which is about Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, because these are of course more frequently used and more important and they're on your smart phone, there on your smart tab. So, you need to know more about them because you are using them more frequently. Will go into further details in the next module. Looking at the overall scope of what is in IoT networking technology. Well, looking at it over there, there is wireless LAN and wireless PAN. In those we have Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, low rate wireless PAN. Also, there is a LPWAN, which is short for Low-Power Wide Area Network. Protocols such as LoRa and Sigfox, follow into this range. This basically uses low power signals in a specific way, such that you are directly connecting to a faraway access point or base station, and you directly connect to the internet through that access point or base station. So, it is a wide area network because although the data rates are low and the signals are low power in here in LPWAN, still you connect directly over long distances and that is why it's called a wide area network and you get direct access to the Internet. Standards and protocols that you may have heard of including these. For the wireless LAN and wireless PAN, we have Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, LoWPAN, and these are all very famous. Also for LPWAN, we have LoRa and Sigfox, under these logos you may have seen them, and now it's time to learn about them. These are the references that I used and I recommend them to you. Thank you.