As I mentioned before, there are ten scales that are the most commonly used. And they're the ones that you really have to be ready to play, and have instant recall of, and be comfortable on. So if you think about it, there are ten common scales, and there are 12 different key signatures. So, that's a total of 120. Now that sounds like a lot, but in fact many of these scales are closely related, so it's really not like learning 120 totally separate things. So it goes quicker then you think. There's sort of two ways to approach it. One way is to be methodical about it, and say, well, I have 120 scales, so if I work on two scales a day in 60 days, I'll have gone through all of them. I don't know anyone who's done it that way, to be honest, but it's certainly logical. Almost everybody learns them another way. That is, every time they learn a new song, they look through the tune and see what chords, what chord scales are called for, and if there's going to be some new ones, in almost every new song you learn at first. And so, you add a few more each time you learn a new song. And eventually, you've pretty much covered all of them just by learning 25, 30, 40 songs over the next few months, or however long it takes you. So, a combination of intentionally learning them and learning them with each new song. What you shouldn't do, is try to guess, or try to fake it. when you come to a chord symbol in a song, and you're not sure, you don't get an instant recall of what scale goes with it, remember that. And know that you have to learn it, and have to practice it, and add it to your memory. I mean here's a situation that happens to everybody when they're learning. And I'm sure it's happened to you. you're playing a new song, and the first chord is fine, it's a B flat chord, I know that one. Then it's an F7, okay, I know what to play on that chord. Then a C chord, I know what to do there. And you see the problem coming up on the next page. It's an F sharp minor seven flat five. And this tempo is moving along, and you're getting closer and closer, and finally you're there. And now what do you do? There's this chord that you don't know the scale for. You're not sure what to play. Well, there's a couple of options, and it's sort of funny. one option is you don't play that measure. Take that moment to adjust the horn, or pause and rest. and listen to the rest of the musicians, and see what notes they're playing, see if you can recognize notes and what it should sound like. It's an F sharp minor seven flat five, so you could start with the F sharp, because we know that's going to work. [MUSIC] Alright and, again, listen to what the other players are playing, and the chords, and the support notes, and so on. And find, you'll hear it maybe, oh I notice a C works. I can hear a C and the F sharp, oh an A, I hear an A as well. So you may find some notes that will get you through that harmony. at least at first. But don't settle for that. When you recognize a chord as being unfamiliar, just make a mental note, the next time I practice, find the scale [MUSIC] that goes with that chord. And then, try to memorize it. Now, let's talk a little more about how to do that. We're going to [MUSIC] play around on it in random combinations. [MUSIC] The idea is to get used to the shape [MUSIC] and the sound that it makes. [MUSIC] So that your brain remembers the, this combination of shape and sound. And next time you come to an F sharp minor seven flat five, you'll have instant recall and you can start playing on it. So, that's what we're going to be doing. Now, as I said, there are 120 theoretically possibilities, if you're talking about all 12 keys. But you'll learn them fast enough once you start doing this with each new tune that you learn. figure out the right scales, and then make sure that you've played them before, or make sure that you have the time to stop and learn them now.