In module three, we consider team evolution and dynamics, building on the foundational concepts we discussed in module two. As teams establish trust and create an environment of psychological safety, team members can overcome the challenges of cultural differences in expectations and begin to align with the new identity, that of the team. The course objectives are: describe dynamics of team evolution to inform ongoing participation and leadership in interprofessional informatics, describe effective communication among team members to promote effective teamwork, discuss ways to navigate conflict and disagreement to increase confidence in team interaction, identify strategies for collaboration within and across networks to leverage team contributions to organizational success, and apply knowledge representation skills to interprofessional guidelines to define the scope of clinical roles for a given intervention using standardized terminology. Our learning activities are video lectures, readings, a discussion, and a quiz. The single most important factor in overcoming the challenges that diversity can introduce is the development of a strong team identity. As a team begins to work well, the growing sense of identity balances and integrates their disciplinary, institutional, and demographic identities. This shared identity is built around a sense of shared vision, growing trust, clear roles and responsibility, as well as problem conceptualization. The more you and your team members think of their identity as being a member of a team, the stronger the potential bonds within the team with shared messages such as we are in this together, we are pursuing the same goals, we must support one another. In addition, any differences in status will begin to minimize with the increase in cohesion. Effectiveness and growth will increase as teams evolve and learn to deal with a difficult conversations that arise from differences among group members. Recall that throughout this specialization, we have delved deeply into the competing values framework. In this module, we can apply concepts from the competing values framework to team functioning and leadership. Our textbook, The Collaboration and Team Science Field Guide, emphasizes healthy communication, including healthy disagreement. That is likely when more than one perspective is represented on a team. We continue to build a new level of understanding when we consider the competing values framework multiple perspectives in the interprofessional informatics leadership context. For example, when you encounter conflict, you may rely more heavily on one style than on others, whether because of temperament or practice. When competing, you use whatever power seems appropriate to win your position. Competing can involve standing up for your rights, defending a position you believe is correct, or simply trying to win. When collaborating, you attempt to work with the other person to find a solution that fully satisfies the concerns of both. It means digging into an issue to pinpoint the underlying needs and wants of individuals. When compromising, you creatively attempt to find an expedient and mutually acceptable solution that partially or even fully satisfies the concerns of all parties. When controlling, you are about standardizing processes and procedures to prevent and avoid conflicts. How will we best use our requisite variety of leadership skills and polarity management to communicate and work with conflict and disagreement? Listening is perhaps one of the most difficult skills to master as a human being. We are always listening to our own inner voice, and our personal perspectives are louder than others messages. We must endeavor to be silent within so that we can seek to listen for shared understanding. This will open our minds to seeking new meaning about conflict. When you use active listening techniques, you reflect what you've heard to confirm your understanding. It may be helpful to own and acknowledge emotions. Expressing them and hearing them can help lift barriers to resolution. Separate what matters from what is in the way. Focus on win-win solutions whenever possible. These situations and behaviors can be powerful learning opportunities to help you develop your skills in managing difficult situations and having empathy for inpatients with others. How will you incorporate these techniques into your team communications? You may wish to teach these communication skills to your teams so that everyone can practice them and contribute to positive resolution. Credibility is essential in teamwork and leadership. Use your expertise relationship and your body language to convey credibility. Frame your presentation to your stakeholders view of the idea or issue, speaking about shared benefits, values, and beliefs. Build your arguments to support your frame. Choose evidence and data from your stakeholders perspectives and use vivid details to make them compelling. Tackle the killer questions upfront. Appeal to your stakeholders identity and address their emotions. Support your solution with stories, values, and illustrations with emotional appeal. Describe how individuals will be impacted personally. These techniques are often used in sales, as well as teamwork because they appeal to the human psyche and will build trust among your stakeholders. How will you incorporate credibility into your team communications? We can also use our informatics knowledge representation skills and leadership to ensure credible and accurate communication among clinical team members around specific clinical issues. Recall the Omaha System coding exemplar from course four, in which clinical guidelines were encoded with the Omaha System, SNOMED CT and LOINC to specify guideline content and create EHR ready documentation and inter-operable clinical decision support tools. We can take this exemplar to an interprofessional team level, in which we define and agree upon the clinical interventions and clinician roles as represented in data elements that should be used for documentation of quality interprofessional care using a standardized terminology. The purpose of this exemplar, the evidence and practice-based standardized care plan for end-of-life care of adults, is to provide a shared care plan for adults, their providers, and their caregivers that supports ethical decision making and safe and effective and compassionate care near the end of life. Problems included in this guideline were identified by international stakeholders, including medical, legal, and ethics scholars, as well as providers, hospice registered nurses, and social workers. The interventions are intended to be non-overlapping across problems and to build a comprehensive holistic plan of care for those problems deemed applicable by the consumers and members of the healthcare team. Thus, we see that shared understanding of standardized terminology by interprofessional healthcare informaticians can lead to a translation of best practices for healthcare teams. A common language and shared understanding go hand in hand, and are both critical for good teamwork and healthcare. Teams may be adhoc in short term or more permanently incorporated within an organization. When you're leading teams in the long term, monitor the group environment to ensure that the psychological safety remains intact, that it is collegial and non-threatening. Identify, recognize, and leverage the strength each team member brings to the group. Practice building on each other's ideas to spark innovation and cultivate creativity before narrowing possibilities down to identify a solution or path forward. Recognize that individual accomplishments contribute to overall successes for the team. Based on the information you gained in this module, how will your future communication among team members or leaders differ? What will you start doing? What will you continue to do? What will you stop doing? Now, take the quiz to test your knowledge before we move on to the next module about the collective impact model.